Appendix

List of Characters Used in this Study

1 Lateral-line canals location in adults: surrounded by bone (0); in grooves at the surface (1); in soft tissues or absent (2).

2 Lateral-line canal grooves in ontogeny: always present (0); in larvae only, lost in adults (1); never present (2).

3 Dermal sculpturing: high ridges and pits, "temnospondyl pattern" (0); cosmine (1); shallow, widely spaced pits, "anthracosaur pattern" (2); low rugosities, pustules (3); none, smooth bone (4).

5 Orbit: elliptical, surrounded by bone (0); with large anterior fenestra (1); expanded posteriorly (2).

6 Jaw joint position relative to occiput (i.e., the occipital condyle): behind occiput

(0); close to level of occiput (1); in front of occiput (2).

7 Frontal and parietal: distinct, with at least three large ossifications (0); both present as paired ossifications (1); fused into a frontoparietal (2); paired parietal and median frontal (3).

8 Frontal: excluded from orbit (0); contacts orbit between prefrontal and postfrontal (1); contacts orbit, postfrontal absent (2).

9 External naris: marginal, reaches ventral skull margin (0); well above skull margin (1).

11 Skull table-cheek joint: sutured (0); potentially mobile, smooth joint present

(1); potentially mobile, slit or fenestra present (2).

12 Parietal: restricted to skull table (0); with superficial occipital flange (1).

13 Parietal-squamosal contact: absent (0); present ( 1 ).

14 Postorbital-supratemporal contact: present (0); absent ( 1 ).

19 Tabular occipital flange: absent (0); single, extends ventromedially from posterolateral corner of skull table (1); two broad, low laminae or a lamina and a tabular horn (2); long, curved flange with ventromedial expansion (3); single, broadly attached to posterior edge of dorsal flange (4); single, overlapped by postparietal posteriorly (5).

20 Subdermal tabular horn: absent (0); present (1).

21 Ventrally bent, sculptured tabular horn: absent (0); present (1).

22 Postparietal number: two (0); one (1); absent (2).

23 Postparietal position: on skull table or on skull table and on occiput (0); only on occiput (1).

24 Tabular-parietal contact: absent (0); present (1).

26 Prefrontal anterior contacts: anterior tectal and lacrimal, minimally (0); nasal and lacrimal only (1); external naris and/or septomaxilla, in addition to other elements (2).

27 Postfrontal: reaches orbit (0); excluded from orbit (1); absent (2).

28 Postorbital: reaches orbit (0); excluded from orbit (1); absent (2).

29 Lacrimal: reaches orbit (0); excluded from orbit (1); absent (2).

30 Jugal: reaches orbit (0); excluded from orbit (1); absent (2).

31 Temporal emargination: absent, temporal area covered by postspiracular and opercular series (0); present between squamosal, tabular, and supratemporal

(1); absent, squamosal, tabular and supratemporal occupy temporal area

(2); present behind quadrate (3); present behind squamosal (4).

32 Maxilla-quadratojugal contact: present (0); absent (1).

33 Palatal shelf of maxilla : absent (0); present (1).

34 Tentacular foramen in maxilla: absent (0); present (1).

35 Quadratojugal: present (0); absent (1).

36 Pterygoid-squamosal contact: absent (0); present (1).

37 Occipital flange of squamosal: absent (0); present, convex (1); present, concave, in notch (2).

38 Quadrate dorsal process: long, high (0); short, low (1).

39 Lateral palatal tooth row: present, uninterrupted (0); interrupted (1); absent (2).

40 Posteromedial transverse vomerine tooth row: absent (0); present (1).

41 Palatal recess: present (0); divided medially (1); covered by bone (2).

43 Vomerine shagreen of denticles: absent (0); present (1).

44 Palatine: discrete (0); fused or absent (1).

45 Lateral exposure of palatine: absent (0); present (1).

47 Palatine shagreen of denticles: absent (0); present (1).

48 Ectopterygoid: discrete (0); fused or absent (1).

49 Ectopterygoid fangs: present (0); absent (1).

50 Ectopterygoid shagreen of denticles: absent (0); present (1).

51 Transverse flange of pterygoid: absent (0); present, extends into adductor chamber (1); present, extends transversely to ectopterygoid (2).

52 Transverse vertical flange of pterygoid: absent (0); present (1).

53 Pterygoid shagreen of denticles: present (0); absent (1).

54 Pterygoid-maxilla contact: absent (0); present ( 1 ).

55 Parasphenoid: contacts vomer (contact visible on palate) (0); does not reach vomer (1).

56 Interpterygoid vacuity: narrow (0); broad (1); absent (2).

57 Palatine position: excluded from interpterygoid vacuity (0); contacts vacuity (1).

58 Maxilla: excluded from interpterygoid vacuity (0); contacts vacuity (1).

59 Parasphenoid morphology: narrow cultriform process, body moderately broad

(0); broad cultriform process merging into broad body (1); narrow cultriform process, body expanded into lateral wings (2).

60 Parasphenoid denticles: present (0); absent (1).

61 Parasphenoid posterior edge: transverse or indented (0); forms a posteromedial process (1).

62 Ventral cranial fissure: exposed on the palate (0); covered by the parasphenoid

63 Posttemporal fenestra: large (0); reduced to a foramen or absent (1).

64 Paroccipital process: absent (0); present (1).

66 Exoccipital contact with dermatocranium: absent (0); with postparietal (1); with parietal (2).

67 Braincase endochondral roof: ossified as a unit (0); unossified (no supraoccipital is present) (1); discrete supraoccipital present (2).

68 Basioccipital condyle: deeply concave, with notochord extension into braincase (0); concave condyle with shallow notochordal pit (1); paired (2); median, broad, convex (3); narrow, convex (4).

69 Basioccipital and exoccipital: indistinguishably fused in the adult (0); suturally distinct throughout ontogeny (1); basioccipital never distinct (2).

70 Basioccipital position: reaches edge of foramen magnum (0); excluded from edge of foramen magnum (1).

71 Parasphenoid and endochondral braincase elements (other than basisphenoid): suturally distinct in adults (0); indistinguishably fused in adults (1).

72 Gap between sphenethmoid and oticooccipital portions of braincase: absent

73 Preopercular: present (0); absent (1).

74 Subopercular: present (0); absent (1).

75 Epipterygoid ossification: present (0); absent (1).

76 Epipterygoid and pterygoid: fused (0); suturally distinct or epipterygoid absent

77 Basicranial articulation: not fused (0); sutured (1).

78 Stapes position: links braincase to quadrate (0); without bony contact distally (1).

79 Stapes: without a dorsal process (0); with a dorsal process confluent with the footplate (1); with a dorsal process distinctly set off from the footplate by the notch (2).

80 Proximal stapedial footplate: absent (0); present, discrete (1); represented by a gentle proximal swelling (2).

81 Stapedial foramen: present (0); absent (1).

82 Mandibular fenestra: absent (0); some small fenestrae in splenial, postsplenial, and angular (1); between angular, postsplenial, splenial, and prearticular (2).

83 Anterior coronoid: present (0); fused or absent (1).

84 Central coronoid: present (0); fused or absent (1).

85 Posterior coronoid: present (0); fused or absent (1).

86 Anterior splenial: present (0); fused or absent (1).

87 Postsplenial: present (0); fused or absent (1).

88 Prearticular: present (0); fused or absent (1).

90 Surangular: present (0); fused or absent (1).

91 Parasymphysial fangs: present (0); absent ( 1 ).

93 Coronoid denticles: absent (0); present (1).

94 Dentary: dentigerous (0); edentulous (1).

95 Retroarticular process: small to mid-sized, extends posteriorly (0); very large

(1); medium sized, extends posteroventrally (2).

96 Medial mandibular tooth row: present (0); absent (1).

97 Crowns of marginal teeth: monocuspid (0); bicuspid (1); tricuspid (2); bulbous with a labially convex cutting edge and a lingual cavity (3).

98 Marginal teeth: nonpedicellate (0); pedicellate (1).

99 Maxillary tooth size: at least as large as dentary teeth (0); much smaller than dentary teeth (1).

100 Labyrinthine infolding: present (0); absent (1).

101 Zygapophyses: absent from most of the tail (0); present almost to the tip of the tail (1).

102 Presacral centra: large, crescentic intercentrum, small, paired pleurocentrum (0); large, circular intercentra, no pleurocentra (1); large, crescentic intercentrum, no pleurocentrum (2); circular pleurocentrum, crescentic intercentrum (3); circular intercentrum and pleurocentrum (4); large pleurocentrum, no intercentrum (5).

103 Neural arches and spines: all paired or fused only at tip of spine (0); fused in at least some segments (1); separated by a thin layer of cartilage (2).

104 Neural arches and centra: discrete elements (0); fused in adults, traces of a neurocentral suture may remain (1); indistinguishably fused early in ontogeny

105 Canal for supraneural ligament: present in at least some arches (0); absent (1).

106 Large foramina in centrum or pedicle: absent (0); present in centrum (1); in pedicle (2).

107 Anterior dorsal neural arches: flat or concave (0); swollen (1).

109 Distinct odontoid process: absent (0); present as a convex median process medial to two concave articular surfaces (1); formed by the apex of two angled articular surfaces (2).

110 Anterior articular surface of atlantal centrum: no broader than posterior surface of centrum (0); broader than posterior surface (1).

111 Anterior process of axial intercentrum-atlantal pleurocentrum complex: absent

112 Atlantal pleurocentrum and axial intercentrum: discrete elements (0); fused (1).

113 Atlantal intercentrum: present (0); absent (1).

114 Atlantal pleurocentrum: paired (0); median (1).

115 Transverse processes in mid-presacral vertebrae: absent (0); short, robust

116 Parapophyses: short (0); almost as long as the diapophyses (1); absent or not distinct from the diapophyses (2).

117 Capitulum articulation in mid-presacral vertebrae: with the intercentrum of its segment (0); intercentrum and pleurocentrum of its segment (1); pleurocentrum of its segment (2); pleurocentrum of segment in front (3); transverse process (4).

118 Number of presacral vertebrae: 23-32 (0); fewer than 23 (1); 33-60 (2); more than 60 (3).

119 Number of sacral vertebrae: none (0); one (1); two or more (2).

121 Discrete dorsal fin: present (0); absent (1).

122 Radiais for caudal fin: present (0); absent (1).

123 Uncinate processes: absent (0); present (1).

124 Interclavicle: without a parasternal process (0); with a parasternal process (1); absent (2).

126 Clavicle shape: with a distinctly expanded ventral plate (0); without a ventral plate, or with narrow ventral plate (1).

127 Cleithrum: broad dorsally (0); slender (1); broad ventrally (2); absent (3).

128 Anocleithrum: present (0); absent (1).

129 Lateral extrascapular: present (0); absent (1).

130 Median extrascapular: present (0); absent (1).

131 Number of scapulocoracoid ossifications: one (0); two (1); three (2).

133 Supinator process: absent, shaft with rounded anterior edge (0); absent, anterior ridge present on shaft (1); present (2).

134 Ectepicondyle: low, indistinct, or absent (0); high, distinct (1).

135 Deltopectoral crest: distinct from proximal articular surface (0); confluent with proximal articular surface (1).

136 Entepicondyle: not greatly expanded (0); greatly expanded (1).

137 Ectepicondylar foramen: present (0); absent (1).

138 Entepicondylar foramen: present (0); absent (1).

139 Radius and ulna: discrete elements (0); fused to each other (1); absent (2).

140 Olecranon process in adult: absent or cartilaginous (0); ossified (1).

141 Number of manual digits: none (0); eight (1); five (2); four (3).

142 Number of pelvic ossifications: one (0); three (1); two (2).

143 Iliac blade: very short (0); consists of dorsal and posterior flanges (1); posterodorsal flange only (2); dorsal flange (3); long anterodorsal flange (4).

144 Internal trochanter: absent (0); present and separated from articular surface by periosteal bone (1); confluent with proximal articular surface (2).

145 Intertrochanteric fossa: present, proximal head of femur concave ventrally

(0); absent, proximal head convex ventrally (1).

146 Adductor crest: absent (0); present (1).

147 Tibia and fibula: discrete elements (0); fused into tibiofibula (1).

148 Astragalus: absent, discrete tibiale, intermedium, and proximal centrale are present (0); present (1).

150 Number of pedal digits: none (0); seven (1); five (2); four (3).

151 Number of phalanges in second toe: two (0); three (1).

152 Number of phalanges in third toe: three (0); four (1).

153 Number of phalanges in fourth toe: four (0); five (1); three (2).

154 Number of phalanges in fifth tow: four (0); five (1); three (2); two (3).

155 Dorsal scales: rhombic or ovoid (0); circular (1); absent (2); sculptured osteoderms (3); long and slender (4); quadrangular with rounded corners (5).

156 Ventral scales: quadrangular, long, and slender (0); sculptured osteoderms

(1); mosaic of polygonal plates (2); elliptical (3); absent (4).

157 Lepidotrichia: present (0); absent (1).

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