Massifs de Refuge at the Southern Margin of the Alps

The former heavily glaciated inner regions of the Alps are highly differentiated from the Southern and Southeastern margins of these mountains, which were not strongly glaciated during the glacial periods. The latter regions are today characterized by an extraordinarily high biodiversity (cf. Ozenda 1982 Varga and Schmitt 2008). These glacial refugia at the Southern margin of the Alps have been described as Massifs de Refuge by botanists and zoologists lasting for over a century (e.g., Chodat...

Niche Conservatism among Allopatric Species of the Grasshopper Genus Afrophlaeoba Jago in the Eastern Arc Mountains

Abstract The persistence of species is strongly determined by their ecological niches. It is therefore, of major importance to obtain knowledge on the niche attributes of relict species in order to conserve these species and understand their current distribution patterns. Niche conservatism has been proposed to explain distribution patterns of many taxa, particularly in the tropics. Indeed, the high gamma diversity in the tropics seems to be influenced by allopatric assemblages of shared...

Glacial Relicts in Higher Plants and Their Protection by the Habitats Directive

In total, 100 plant species were identified as glacial relics in Germany (excluding Rubus fruticosus agg.). Most of the glacial relicts in higher plants belong to the alpine, pre-alpine or arctic-alpine distribution types (Table 1). Species that occur in Germany only in the Alps as part of their main distribution area but have relict populations outside of Germany only were not considered (six species, e.g. Sibbaldia procumbens in the Vosges or Moehringia muscosa in the Bohemian Forest). Six...

Genetic Population Structure According to Nuclear Genes

Genetic analysis using cellulose acetate electrophoresis was performed on 12 populations of C. v. nodulosus throughout most of its distributional range, and including those used for mark-recapture studies above. A total of 308 specimens were included in the analysis for a mean sample size of 25 individuals and 16 allozyme loci (Matern et al. 2009 Fig. 2). Despite small population sizes (inferred from small areas of suitable habitats at most sampling sites), we found no evidence for inbreeding,...

Biology and Ecology of Cave Animals

Cave animals are adapted to the above-mentioned special habitat conditions, which include reduced environmental variation and darkness. Loss of eyes, loss of wings in insects, and reduction of pigments are elements of regressive evolution prolongation of extremities and increased sensory systems are elements of progressive evolution which occur in cave animals. The development of such features associated with cave life is known as troglomorphy (Christiansen 2005). In many cases, these features...

Macro Ecotone of the Mammoth Steppe and the Boreal Forest

The Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles have resulted in the antagonistic dynamics of biota belonging to contrasting macrohabitats (de Lattin 1967, p. 356). Thus, principally, two basic types of zonal setting can be distinguished. The inter- post-glacial (but also interstadial ) type can be characterised by the expansion of the Arboreal and regression of the non-Arboreal macrohabitats. As a result, the open macrohabitats (tundra, steppe, semi-desert and high mountains) have been separated...

The Climate System and Relevant Processes

The usual definition of climate is that it encompasses the slowly varying aspects of the atmosphere-hydrosphere-land surface system. In some sense, climate is the average condition of the weather over several years to tens of years (averaging times need to be carefully chosen), as exemplified by the parameters viz., temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, cloudiness and the amount of precipitation. Modern climate definitions include higher order statistics beyond mean values, such as the...

References

Aboucaya A (1989) La flore des les d'Hy res tude des rapports phytog ographiques et biosyst matiques avec les Maures et la Corse. Th se de Doctorat Aix-Marseille III Affre L, Thompson JD, Debussche M (1997) Genetic structure of continental and island populations of the Mediterranean endemic Cyclamen balearicum (Primulaceae). Am J Bot 84 437-451 Alsos IG, Eidesen PB, Ehrich D, Skrede I, Westergaard K, Jacobsen GH, Landvik JY, Taberlet P, Brochmann C (2007) Frequent long-distance plant...

Discussion

The results support the niche conservatism hypothesis. Compared to the marked niche differences among sympatric grasshopper species of the East Usambara Mts., niche overlap was high among the four allopatric, congeneric species. For all microhabitat variables analysed, niche overlap was significantly greater than expected by chance. A strong niche overlap was also reported for other traits such as phenology, diet and microclimatic factors (Hochkirch 2001). The results support equilibrium models...

Introduction

Astragalus ( 2.500 species Podlech 1986) and Oxytropis ( 300 species) are closely related genera, representing one of the largest angiosperm genus complexes. Taxonomic instability within the genus complex comprising both Astragalus and Center for Plant Molecular Biology (ZMBP) - General Genetics, University of T bingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D-72076 T bingen, Germany e-mail matthias.schlee gmx.de DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures, Inhoffenstra e 7B, D-38124...

Endemism in the Mediterranean Basin

The Mediterranean Basin is characterized by its floristic richness (25,000 species) and high rates of endemism (around 12,500 species, i.e., 50 ), while there is an obvious South-North gradient of decreasing endemism in Europe (Favarger 1972). The ten Mediterranean hot-spots of plant biodiversity represent privileged endemism areas and the most important refugia mainly mountains and islands (Medail and Quezel 1997 Medail and Diadema 2008). About two thirds of endemics are perennial taxa that...

Towards an Understanding of the Biogeography of the Lost World

One of the most famous fantasy adventure novels has been Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 'The Lost World'. Purely science fiction, the geological formation of this story finds its paradigm in the real world - the Precambrian Guyana Highlands in South America. This region, which is also known as the Pantepui harbors an extraordinarily high biodiversity. Pantepui is situated on the Precambrian Guyana Shield, which had been separated from the African Shield by a continental drift around 80-100 Myr...

Strengths of CEMs and Potential Pitfalls When Interpreting Results

CEMs are easy to use and inexpensive. A steadily increasing number of studies have been showing that, when CEMs are properly applied, results can have a high quality (e.g. Peterson 2003 Waltari et al. 2007). They have been a rich source of quantitative projections concerning geographic ranges of species with great value in many areas of both basic and applied ecology and conservation. They allow the Fig. 2 Today's distribution of Aeshna caerulea (a) hatched areas, source Kuhn and Burbach...

Emission Scenarios

A scenario is a description of potential future conditions produced to inform and assist in what would otherwise be decision-making with an even greater uncertainty. However, more than just a reliable model of the physical climate system is needed for climate projections of the future. Here, there is also the need to supply the models with estimates of the development of the forcing parameters. Of central interest are future anthropogenic modifications of atmospheric greenhouse gasses and...

Is the Lost World Lost High Endemism of Aphibians and Reptiles on South American Tepuis in a Changing Climate

Dennis R dder, Andreas Schl ter, and Stefan L tters Abstract The Pantepui region of the Guyana Shield of Northern South America harbors a unique biota. It is characterized by high local species endemism, especially applicable to its table mountain-like outcrops, the tepuis. For this region, also known as the 'Lost World', different hypotheses have been proposed to explain its Biogeography. We suggest that the amphibian and reptile communities' suit well as target group to study the hypotheses...

Statistical Analyses

We used three estimators to assess genetic diversity (1) percentage of polymorphic loci (P), (2) unbiased Nei's gene diversity for dominant markers, and (3) Shannon's index, which does not assume Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We used TFPGA v. 1.3 (Miller 1997) to calculate P and Nei's genetic diversity, whereas Shannon's index was calculated using POPGENE v. 1.32 (Yeh and Boyle 1997). We assessed the extent of genetic structuring for each species using Weir and Cockerham's (1984) unbiased...

Reconstructing Connectivity Patterns Within Pantepm Under LGM Climate

For CEDM calculation, MaxEnt 3.2.1 (Phillips et al. 2006 http www.cs.princeton. edu shapire maxent) was used to assess potential distributions of vegetation zones during LGM. Maxent is a machine-learning algorithm following the principles of maximum entropy (Jaynes 1957). In order to study responses in terms of potential distributions of vegetation zones in the Guyana Highlands, especially the tepuis under different climate scenarios, distribution data points are necessary for CEDM calculation....

Adders Vipera berus Group

In contrast to the species treated earlier, adders have a more Northern distribution, occupying a vast territory from Northern Spain to the Polar circle in Scandinavia, and to the Pacific Ocean in the East. Yet here too, genetic differentiation and specia-tion are concentrated in the Southern margin of the distribution area. The Iberian Adder, V. seoanei Lataste, 1879, has been regarded as a separate species for long. In the Black Sea area, V. nikolskii Vedmederya et al. 1986 (Ukraine, Southern...

Tyrrhenian or Corsican Red Deer

The Corsican red deer (C. e. corsicanus Erxleben, 1777) is the smallest of the existing red deer (Dolan 1988). It is confined to the Tyrrhenian islands Corsica and Sardinia and classified as Endangered by the IUCN (Wemmer 1998 IUCN Red List 2007). In the second half of the twentieth century, it underwent a severe bottleneck with only 100-200 animals remaining (Krumbiegel 1982 Dolan 1988 Kidjo et al. 2007 and references therein), but has recovered well since so that recently it has been...

Jesenik E sudetica Disturbance Dependent Metapopulation

The known distribution of Sudeten E. sudetica extends beyond the timberline sites in Jesenik Mts., and the species also inhabits much lower Rychlebske Mts. (highest altitude Smrk, 1,125 m) (cf. Kuras et al. 2001a,c, Maslowski 2005). Based on the then-available information, Kuras et al. (2003) speculated that the populations of the more ephemeral habitats below the timberline are only transitory, depending on colonists originating from the more stable timberline sites colonizing the temporary...

European Pond Turtle Emys orbicularis Complex

Emys Orbicularis

Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) is a polytypic species composed of a number of morphologically defined subspecies (Fritz 1996). IIa IIb IIc IId IIf 4IIg Jf IIh IIIa IIIb o IVa n IVb IVc IVd IVe 0 IVf n IVg IVh Va Vb Vc VIa VIb VIc VId VIe VIIa t VIIb VIIIa Fig. 1 Geographical distribution of Emys haplotypes (only natural populations). Some rare haplotypes are not shown. Note that only haplotypes of groups I and II occur naturally North of the Alps We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b...

Biogeography and Diversity Hotspots

The marked differences between the distribution patterns of aquatic and terrestrial troglobites were recognized by biologists several decades ago (Thienemann 1950 Vandel 1965 Lamoreux 2004). The Northern distribution limit of terrestrial troglobites does not reach as far North as that of aquatic troglobites, at least in Europe and North America. For example, members of Niphargus, an aquatic amphipod genus with blind species which inhabit groundwater in caves and other geological settings, are...

Microsatellites

Microsatellites consist of short, tandemly repeated sequences of 1-6 base pairs within the nucleus of the cell (Palo et al. 1995 Ashley 1999). They have an elevated rate of mutation due to slipped-strand mispairing (Levinson and Gutman 1987 Palo et al. 1995 Eisen 1999), resulting in a high proportion of polymorphism even between closely related lines (Semagn et al. 2006 and references therein). Resulting variations (alleles) are scored through differing banding patterns. This marker is neutral...

The Past Million Years

Ch4 Ice Core

In the past 2.5 million years, the so-called Quaternary period, the Earth's climate has been marked by temperature swings between extended glacial periods, which were characterized by thick ice sheets covering large parts of North America, Northern Europe and Siberia, and interglacial times characterised by an ice covering only in Antarctica and sometimes Greenland, as is the case today. A schematic illustrating these glacial and interglacial swings and putting the temperature trends of this...

Arctic Alpine Species

Arctic-alpine distribution ranges comprise the arctic as well as the alpine belt of more Southern mountain ranges. Typically, arctic-alpine distributions are large and often encompass the entire Northern Hemisphere (circumpolar distribution) more restricted ranges are, e.g., amphi-Atlantic or amphi-Pacific (Abbott and Brochmann 2003). The last few years have seen increasing interest in phylogeographic studies of arctic-alpine higher plants, which are by now the doubtlessly best studied group....

Contributors

Thorsten Assmann Institute of Ecology and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University L neburg, Scharnhorststra e 1, D-21335 L neburg, Germany, assmann uni.leuphana.de Bettina Augenstein Biogeographie, Universit t Trier, Am Wissenschaftspark 25-27, D-54296 Trier, Germany, augenstein uni-trier.de John C. Avise University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA, javise uci.edu Monica A. Amorin Department of Animal Biology and Ecology, University of Vigo, EUET Forestal, Campus Universitario, E-36006...

Viperine Snake Natrix maura

Natrix maura Linnaeus, 1758 inhabits aquatic habitats in the Western part of the Mediterranean, from Italy to Morrocco and Tunisia, North to Central France, and Lake Geneva. Two phylogeographic analyzes were done on the basis of cytochrome b sequences Barata et al. 2008, Guicking et al. 2008 and ISSR fingerprints Guicking et al. 2008 . Both data sets showed identical groupings Fig. 7 . Spain NW E16, 1 Portugal Douro E15, 2 Portugal Douro E14, 6 France SE, Mallorca E27, 14 Spain Mallorca E33, 1...

Aesculapian Snake Zamenis longissimus Complex

Zamenis longissimus Laurenti, 1768 , formerly E. longissima, is found in France, Italy, Austria, the Balkans, and Turkey, with isolated relict populations in Southern Germany, Czech Republic, and Poland. Protein electrophoretic comparisons Lenk and Joger 1994 revealed only slight geographic structuring in Z. longissimus which, for example, showed an association of the Central European relicts to the Balkan populations and not to the Italian populations thus refuting the hypothesis that the...

Postglacial Colonization History Inferred From Y Chromosomal Introns

Four major Y chromosome lineages were identified throughout Europe as opposed to five identified using mtDNA Fig. 2 . One of the major differences between female-mediated mtDNA and male-mediated Y introns lineages was the strong grouping of all French and Spanish shrews to form a Western Y lineage Fig. 4 . Pygmy shrews from Northern France belong to the Western Y lineage as opposed to the Northern lineage for mtDNA. The well supported Western Y lineage is possibly caused by the slower mutation...

Phylogeography of the Corsican Red Deer

The origin of the Corsican red deer has been a matter of considerable debate reviewed in Vigne 1988 and Zachos and Hartl 2006 . The two main questions are 1 where did it come from and 2 how did it reach the Tyrrhenian islands - naturally during a glacial regression of the sea-level or through human introduction The latter hypothesis was already put forward at the end of the nineteenth century Lydekker 1898 , and Groves pers. comm. to Geist 1998 thought that the Tyrrhenian red deer were...

Refugia of Boreal Birds and Mammals in Eastern Central Europe

Comparison of phylogeographic structures in several Eurasiatic boreal species has shown that species associated with the taiga forest revealed essentially similar patterns. In the wood lemming Myopus schisticolor , and also in most other boreal forest species, no substantial phylogeographic divisions across Northern Eurasia have been reported Zink et al. 2002 Fedorov et al. 2008 . The contraction of the range of these species to a single, probably Southern Siberian refugial area during the late...

Relics or not Relics Thats the Question

The genetic analyses of different species with alpine and arctic-alpine disjunct distribution patterns unravel a great variety of different biogeographical patterns and considerable differences in the time frames of the vicariance and or dispersal events. Most often, separations in arctic-alpine species between the Northern populations and the high mountain systems in central and Southern Europe often the Alps are recent i.e., post-glacial phenomena. In alpine disjunct and in arctic-alpine...

Dice Snake Natrix tessellata

Natrix tessellata Laurenti, 1768 is the sister species of N. natrix Guicking et al. 2006a . The Dice snake is the ecological equivalent of the Viperine snake further East, occupying a vast distributional range from Germany, Switzerland, and Italy to Central Asia, Iran, and Arabia. The phylogeographic analysis of cytochrome b sequence data revealed nine distinct haplotype groups, of which two occur in Greece and only one in the rest of Europe. The Middle East is the most probable area of origin...

Modelling Future Trends of Relict Species

Abstract Distribution patterns of species vary over space and time. This becomes most evident considering the differences between the current and Last Glacial Maximum LGM, 21,000 BP distribution patterns of species in the Northern hemisphere see also Habel et al. 2009, Mini Review 03 . Most warm-adapted species experienced reduction and fragmentation of ranges because of intrusion by uninhabitable continental ice sheets causing distributional shifts and fragmentation of primary habitats. On the...

Dinodal Mountain Species

Species of headwaters of mountain areas are often classified as belonging into an own biogeographic unit, the dinodal Malicky 1983, 2000 . Due to their water dwelling larvae, many Trichoptera species are considered part of this group. The most extensive genetic study of mountain species in this unit was performed on the mitochondrial COI gene of the caddisfly Drusus discolor Pauls et al. 2006 , which occurs in the mountain areas of Southern and central Europe. No close relationships among...

Allele Numbers in Populations North and South of the Holdhaus Line

Altogether 50 different alleles were recorded in populations situated South of the Holdhaus line, whereas only 23 different alleles were found in populations North of it. This is also reflected by the allele numbers corrected for the number of investigated populations rarefied to 34 populations, Krebs 1999 The populations situated South of the Holdhaus line show 41.5 alleles, whereas the populations North of it have only 22.0 different alleles. With the exception of the seven private alleles in...

The Holdhaus Line Still uptoDate

Since Holdhaus' basic work, numerous additional species and a vast number of additional records of previously described endogeic and cave-dwelling species have come to be known e.g., Lobl and Smetana 2003 . We analyzed the faunistic and taxonomic literature e.g., Bonadona 1971 Vigna-Taglianti 1982 Kryzhanovskij et al. 1995 Avon 1997 Lobl and Smetana 2003 Casale and Vigna-Taglianti 2005 and verified the geographic information of the records regarding potential deviations from Holdhaus' concept....

Recommendations for Management and Scientific Monitoring

Applying general recipes may be detrimental because the impact of management is not similar in different biotopes, with different species and or ecological conditions. We must nevertheless remember that every management act has a potential negative impact and we are probably forced to admit some minimal loss in order to achieve management actions that will in the end prove to be positive. To minimize this potential loss, our recommendations follow several major lines 1. Scientific monitoring of...

Private Alleles Evidence for a Refuge Area North of the Holdhaus Line

Private alleles are, from a population genetic point of view, of special interest. They developed either during the course of a long-lasting isolation of the respective population i.e., the variant originates from mutation or they originally occurred in many populations but were lost at all but one site, e.g., as a consequence of repeated extinction and recolonization Hewitt 1996 . These two sources of origin imply that private alleles occur predominantly in populations in or close to refuge...

How do CEMs Work

Before CEMs can be computed it is necessary to compile a set of species occurrence records and a set of suitable predictor variables e.g. GIS layers containing information on climatic parameters . Some examples of freely available climate data sets are given in Kozak et al. 2008 R dder et al. 2008, Chap. 22. The layers for each climate scenario commonly include the minimum and maximum temperatures and the mean precipitation per month 36 climatic parameters . Based on these monthly layers,...

The Impact of Habitat Management Via Mowing Experiments and Results

Two experiments were conducted in the Pr s du Sommerain nature reserve 50 10'N 5 47'E in the Belgian Ardenne to assess the impact of mowing the first one on the larval stage and the second on the adult stage. The first experiment aimed at assessing the survival of larval stages after summer and autumn mowing, through the number of emerging adults. Six pairs of 200 m2 25 x 8 m strips with a dense cover of bistort i.e., the host plant were studied in an abandoned wet meadow between 1993 and 1995...

Linking Genetics and Ecology Reconstructing the History of Relict Populations of an Endangered Semi Aquatic Beetle

Andrea Matern, Claudia Drees, Alfried P. Vogler, and Thorsten Assmann Abstract Population ecology and genetic studies are complementary approaches to address central questions of conservation biology and can provide information for the protection of biodiversity and the improvement of conservation measures which may otherwise be unattainable. This contribution highlights the benefit of combining diverse approaches for obtaining knowledge on a relict species and for implementing suitable...

Relict Populations and Endemic Clades in Palearctic Reptiles Evolutionary History and Implications for Conservation

Ulrich Joger, Uwe Fritz, Daniela Guicking, Svetlana Kalyabina-Hauf, Zoltan T. Nagy, and Michael Wink Abstract The phylogeographic history of eight species complexes of West Palearctic reptiles was reconstructed using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Cryptic endemic taxa were detected in the Southern European peninsulas Iberia, Southern Italy Sicily, and Greece as well as in North Africa, Anatolia, Iran, and the Caucasus. These endemics are mainly of Tertiary or early Pleistocene age. Only...

Discussion and Conclusion

Genetic variability of populations within the Astragalus-Oxytropis complex has most often been addressed by techniques, such as allozyme polymorphisms Karron et al. 1988 two endemic and two widespread species , RFLP Kulshreshtha et al. 2004 one Astragalus species comprising six varieties, two Oxytropis species, pea as outgroup , AFLP, or RAPD Travis et al. 1996 one variety . Only a few studies used cloned ITS sequences to compare populations Dong et al. 2003, eight widespread species, one...

Biogeographical Definition and Sub Division of Boreal Species

The species of the boreal zone show a significant diversity of extension and taxonomical structure of ranges. Most boreal taiga-species are widely distributed from the Far East across Siberia to Scandinavia, often without significant geographical variations. They are partly inhabitants of forests but are often connected with peat bogs, e.g. due to the food-plant specialisation e.g. the butterflies and moths Colias palaeno, Boloria aquilonaris, Plebejus optilete, Anarta cordigera, Arichanna...

What is a Relict Population

Generally, a relict population can be defined as a part of an evolutionary lineage which has been isolated geographically. Three types of relicts have to be considered 1. Geographical relicts without significant genetic differentiation. This type of relict is usually found in exclaves beyond the Northern margin of a species' range. Typical representatives of this type are the minute German and Czech populations of N. tessellata and Z. longissimus. Both occupy geographically restricted,...

Climate Envelope Model

As shown in Waltari et al. 2007 , Climate Envelope Models CEM provide a useful complement to genetic studies to predict ecological patterns of potential habitat distribution. In this study, 458 presence localities over the distributional range of Lycaena helle provided the basis for CEM computation. We used the CEM approach in order to assess the number and spatial distribution of recent and future climatically suitable habitats cf. Hijmans and Graham 2006 . In order to assess potential...

Molluscs

A total of 342 species of non-marine molluscs were recorded from Germany in the CLECOM list Falkner et al. 2001 CLECOM 2002 the subterranean freshwater molluscs are not included here , of which 70 are freshwater and 236 terrestrial species. Twenty freshwater species are considered relicts glacial or post-glacial isolated . The terrestrial molluscs are represented by 18 relicts. The relict species include mountain molluscs as well as specialist species at low altitudes, for example in mires,...

Peripheral Relict Populations of Widespread Species Evolutionary Hotspots or Just More of the Same

Abstract Relicts are species with a former, more widespread distribution range but can also include specific populations in parts of a species distribution thus called relict populations . Such populations are often found towards the species range limits where conditions may be less optimal than in the more central parts. For peripheral relict populations to be valuable for conservation from a biodiversity point of view, they should be exposed to selection pressures that are different from the...

Relict Species with Long Distance Disjunctions in the Carpathian Basin

There are several Mediterranean-Manchurian bicentric faunal elements with disjunct range occurring in the Carpathian Basin. The distribution of this species group is connected with the Ponto-Caspian waterway-system, and displays longdistance disjunctions from the vicarious Eastern Asiatic taxa, which often are only subspecifically differentiated Lepidoptera Apatura metis metis - Apatura m. substituta, Chariaspilates formosarius hungaricus - Chariaspilates f. formosarius, Rhyparioides m....

Pleistocene Refugia and Recolonization

Table 2 gives an overview of Pleistocene refugia inferred for the studied groups. The classical Mediterranean refugia Iberia, Italy, and the Balkans were used by all species groups, but in many cases, more than one microrefugium was located in each peninsula. North African and Asian refugia did not play a role in recolonization after Pleistocene cold phases, but have acted as long time independent speciation centers. This observation may however, be biased by our selection of species, as we...

Extra Mediterranean Refugia of Cold Adapted and Temperate Species

During glacial periods, the regions between the Alps, Pyrenees, and Balkan mountains in the South and the Northern European ice shield in the North were largely covered by tundra and cold steppe on permafrost. Only cold-adapted species were Fig. 1 The five major Mediterranean refugia and differentiation centers of the South European peninsulas R1 Atlantic-Mediterranean in the Maghreb, R2 Atlantic-Mediterranean in Iberia, R3 Adriatic-Mediterranean, R4 Pontic-Mediterranean at the Balkans, R5...

Extra Mediterranean Refugia Post Glacial Vegetation History and Area Dynamics in Eastern Central Europe

Abstract Evidences from fossil records and genetic research suggest that the arboreal refugia were not restricted to Southern Europe and in particular to the Mediterranean peninsulas during the full-glacials. Fossil pollen data and macrofossil remains indicate that several tree species have survived also at the Southern edge of the cold-dry steppe-tundra area in Central and Eastern Europe. Recent results of surveys on the Late Pleistocene Mammalian fauna clearly contradict to the tree-less...

Refugia of Cold Tolerant Invertebrates and Exothermic Vertebrates in Eastern Central Europe

Vertebrate and Mollusc remains show that the lowest Weichselian loess layers in the Carpathian Basin were formed during the first cool dry phase of the last glacial, between 50,000 and 70,000 years BP Hertelendy et al. 1992 . The dominance of woodland species decreased, but the tree cover was able to survive the unfavourable environmental changes because, as a result of the mosaic-like environment, some mild and humid micro-climatic areas developed in the foothill zone. On the Tokaj hill, for...

Conclusions

Irrespective of the exact processes involved in the populations described above, it shows that peripheral, relict populations of also widespread species can add valuable and unique genetic variation. However, these diversifying processes need to act in isolation as homogenizing gene flow from more central parts can significantly counteract both random processes like genetic drift as well as selective forces. Despite a study setup that aimed to discriminate between the influence of gene flow and...

Carpathian Balkanic Boreo Montane Arboreal Refugia

It is known since several decades that the Southern part of the Carpathian Mts. was a refugial area for temperate and mountain forest taxa during the last glacial period Huntley and Birks 1983 . The Eastern and the Southern Carpathians have been repeatedly pointed out as important glacial refugia, from which trees started to expand at the beginning of the Holocene e.g. Huntley and Birks 1983 Bennett et al. 1991 Willis 1994 . In particular, Willis et al. 2000 indicated that temperate refugia in...

Assessing Possible Impacts of Future Anthropogenic Climate Change

Next to the interesting opportunity to study relevant biogeographic and evolutionary aspects related to past climate, the unique amount of endemic taxa of Pantepui may be of certain interest when watching through a window into the future. There is little doubt that within a few decades, the worldwide climate will become warmer due to human impact IPCC 2007 . Efforts in global biodiversity conservation have underlined the relevance of Pantepui as a region which deserves protection, as it is...

Butterflies

Currently, 188 butterfly species are established in Germany Lepidoptera Rhopalocera . Twelve species from two different groups of relict species were identified as relicts. Butterflies such as Lycaena helle represent species that are well adapted to cold-stenothermic conditions. Examples for species in Europe that are adapted to cold conditions, and thus defined as glacial relicts, can be found in the work of Varga 1977 and Weidemann 1995 . Other species such as Chazara briseis are thermophilic...

Genetic Analysis

A total of 560 individuals of L. helle were sampled at 30 localities scattered over seven mountain groups in its Western European distribution area Pyrenees, Massif Central, Jura, Madeleine mountains, Vosges, Ardennes-Eifel and the Westerwald Fig. 1, Table 1 . Sampling was carried out from the beginning of May to the end of July in 2005-2007. The individuals were netted in the field and one leg per individual was removed and stored in 100 ethanol until analysis. To avoid recaptures of...

Warming Climate P mugo and Future of Sudeten Erebia

The long-term persistence of these two Sudeten species of Erebia butterflies will depend on the continuous presence of suitable open habitats in the upper parts of the mountains. The current distribution patterns suggest that the habitats do not necessarily need to be located above the climatic timberline. Also, none of the species is threatened by direct destruction of habitats, as most of their sites already enjoy legal protection, either in the form of reserves within the Jesenik-protected...

Are Disjunct Alpine and Arctic Alpine Animal and Plant Species in the Western Palearctic Really Relics of a Cold Past

Thomas Schmitt, Christoph Muster, and Peter Sch nswetter Abstract The climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene as well as the Holocene warming caused numerous disjunctions of cold-adapted, arctic-alpine, and alpine biota. However, the depths of the genetic splits among the disjunct parts of the species distributions vary considerably. The arctic ranges are usually weakly differentiated, and great similarity with at least some areas in more Southern regions is frequently found. Likewise,...

Issr Markers Guicking 2009

Amann T, Razzetti E, Joger U 2001 La zona di contatto tra Lacerta bilineata Daudin, 1802 e Lacerta viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Italia. Atti della 3o Congresso Nazionale, Societas Herpetologica Italica. Pianura science e storia dell'ambiente padano 13 261-264 Amann T, Rykena S, Joger U, Nettmann HK, Veith M 1997 Zur artlichen Trennung von Lacerta bilineata Daudin, 1802, und L. viridis Laurenti, 1768 . Salamandra 33 255-268 Avise JC 1994 Molecular markers, natural history and evolution. Chapman amp...

Molecular Methods Blessing or Curse

Abstract Conservation genetic studies make use of molecular methods to obtain valuable information which help optimizing management strategies especially for threatened species. This chapter presents an overview of different molecular markers microsatellites, AFLPs, RFLPs, RAPDs, mtDNA, allozymes and their applications in conservation and genetic studies. Microsatellites have shown to be, though expensive, currently the most popular genetic marker as the high degree of polymorphism is ideal to...

Endemic Taxa and Autochtonous Evolution in the Carpathian Basin

The level of endemism generally correlates with the geological age of the refugia where relict-like taxa have been evolved and or could survive. The Carpathian Basin belongs to the geologically young areas of Europe. Its relief developed under the influence of the Alpine orogenesis and by retreat of the Paratethys and the Pannonian inland sea. Moreover, the phylogeography of some freshwater invertebrates e.g. Neritidae snails, see Bunje 2007 Feher et al. 2007 is clearly connected with the...

European Whip Snake Hierophis viridiflavus

Hierophis viridiflavus Lacepede, 1789 is distributed over most of France, Italy, and Slovenia and reaches into South-Western Switzerland, Luxemburg, Belgium, Northernmost Spain, and Croatia. An Eastern subspecies, H. v. carbonarius Bonaparte, 1833 , was mainly based on coloration and refuted by Schatti and Vanni 1986 . However, our molecular analysis based on both cytochrome b sequences and ISSR fingerprints, confirmed it Nagy et al. 2002 . In general, a Western and an Eastern clade are...

Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA is an extra-chromosomal genome in the cell mitochondria that resides outside of the nucleus, and is inherited from mother with no paternal contribution Avise 1991 . The obtained PCR products are sequenced and banding patterns analyzed. The theory of relatively constant mutation rates molecular clock Lushai et al. 2003 is used to estimate time scales in which populations are split up, allowing the detection of, e.g., species dispersals and dispersal centers Riddle and...

The Carpathian Balkanic Connections

The close geological and faunal connections of the Carpathians suggest the existence of highly dynamic contacts with the mountains of the Balkan Peninsula during the Upper Pleistocene. These connections show a contrasting picture compared to the refugia of the Iberian and the Appenine peninsula which have been much more sheltered by the glaciated mountains of the Pyrenees and the Alps, respectively. At least two major arboreal refugia can be traced here the Illyrian refugium related to the...