Conclusions

Combining the advantages of both methods - molecular analysis and Climate Envelope Modelling - creates a complete picture of the status of a species. While genetic data give direct evidence of a species' history and its recent situation over different spatial scales, the data of a CEM show the present distribution and its future tendencies. Thus, both methods give information on different spatial and temporal scales and form a complete picture of a species, and in our case of a species which is representative of a large number of cold-adapted species.

Acknowledgement We acknowledge a grant from the Ministry of Culture, Education and Sciences Luxemburg (grant number BFR-05/118), the Natural History Museum Luxembourg. Thanks go to all lepidopterologists who helped us to collect the species and/or showed us suitable sites. We also thank Aline Finger (Zürich, Switzerland) for the laboratory work and Thomas Schmitt (Trier, Germany) for critical comments on a draft version of this manuscript.

Frequencies of private alleles for distinct mountain regions analysed (no private allele was found for the Vosges); mean frequency/ population, mean frequency/group, mean number/population, mean number/group and total frequency of loci over all populations are given as percentages u

Ml M2 M3 M4

M5 J10

J8 J7 J2

J3 MM A1 A2 A3 E2 E3 El E4 W2 Total

He03 E12

Hel2

32.4

10.7

11.9

0.4 0.6 0.1 1.0 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 1.4 0.1 3.0 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3

Hel4 2.9

35.3

2.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.2 0.7 1.7 0.1 1.5 3.0 0.1 0.1

I Mean number / group

Mean number/ Mean frequency Mean frequency/ population / group population

® Gene/alleles

Pyrenees

Massif Central

Jura

Madeleine Mts.

Ardennes/Eifel

Wester-wald o o o o o

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