Contents

Relict Species: From Past to Future 1

Jan C. Habel, Thorsten Assmann, Thomas Schmitt, and John C. Avise

Part I: Climate and Ecosystems

The Changing Climate: Past, Present, Future 9

Markus Quante

Extra-Mediterranean Refugia, Post-Glacial Vegetation History and Area Dynamics in Eastern

Central Europe 57

Zoltan Varga

Part II: Ancient Relicts

Review: The Dark Side of Relict Species Biology: Cave Animals as Ancient Lineages 91

Thorsten Assmann, Achille Casale, Claudia Drees, Jan C. Habel, Andrea Matern, and Andreas Schuldt

Relicts Within the Genus Complex Astragalus/Oxytropis (Fabaceae), and the Comparison of Diversity by Objective Means 105

Matthias Schlee, Markus Göker, Guido W. Grimm, and Vera Hemleben

Relict Populations and Endemic Clades in Palearctic Reptiles: Evolutionary History and Implications for Conservation 119

Ulrich Joger, Uwe Fritz, Daniela Guicking,

Svetlana Kalyabina-Hauf, Zoltan T. Nagy, and Michael Wink

Niche Conservatism among Allopatric Species of the

Grasshopper Genus Afrophlaeoba Jago, 1983 in the Eastern

Arc Mountains (Tanzania) 145

Axel Hochkirch

Conservation Genetics and Phylogeography of the Threatened Corsican and Barbary Red Deer (Cervus elaphus corsicanus and C. e. barbarus) 159

Frank E. Zachos, Ghaiet M. Hajji, and San S. Hmwe

Phylogeographic Analyses of a Boreal-Temperate Ectomycorrhizal

Basidiomycete, Amanita muscaria, Suggest Forest Refugia in Alaska During the Last Glacial Maximum 173

Jozsef Geml, Rodham E. Tulloss, Gary A. Laursen, Nina A. Sazanova, and D. Lee Taylor

Part III: Glacial Relicts

Review: Refugial Areas and Postglacial Colonizations in the Western Palearctic 189

Jan C. Habel, Claudia Drees, Thomas Schmitt, and Thorsten Assmann

Multiple Glacial Refuges of Unwinged Ground Beetles in Europe: Molecular Data Support Classical Phylogeographic Models 199

Claudia Drees, Andrea Matern, Goddert von Oheimb, Thomas Reimann, and Thorsten Assmann

Postglacial Recolonization of Continental Europe by the Pygmy Shrew (Sorex minutus) Inferred From Mitochondrial and Y

Chromosomal DNA Sequences 217

Allan D. McDevitt, Glenn Yannic, Ramugondo V. Rambau, Thomas J. Hayden, and Jeremy B. Searle

Part IV: Relicts Since Postglacial Times

Are Disjunct Alpine and Arctic-Alpine Animal and Plant Species in the Western Palearctic Really "Relics of a Cold Past"? 239

Thomas Schmitt, Christoph Muster, and Peter Schönswetter

Linking Genetics and Ecology: Reconstructing the History of Relict Populations of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Beetle 253

Andrea Matern, Claudia Drees, Alfried P. Vogler, and Thorsten Assmann

Peripheral Relict Populations of Widespread Species; Evolutionary Hotspots or Just More of the Same? 267

Anna Cassel-Lundhagen

Genetic Differentiation Between and Among Refugia 277

Gabriel Nève and Régine Verlaque

Population Genetic Structure of Two Threatened Dragonfly Species (Odonata: Anisoptera) as Revealed by RAPD Analysis 295

Monica A. Amorin, Marta Vila, and Adolfo C. Rivera

Molecular Methods: Blessing or Curse? 309

Aline Finger and Charlotte Klank

Part V: Conservation of Relict Species

The EC Habitats Directive and the German Natura 2000 Network of Protected Areas as Tool for Implementing the Conservation of Relict Species 323

Marco Zimmermann, Mareike Vischer-Leopold, Götz Ellwanger, Axel Ssymank, and Eckhard Schröder

Ecological limits vis-à-vis Changing Climate: Relic Erebia

Butterflies in Insular Sudeten Mountains 341

Martin Konvicka, Jiri Benes, and Thomas Schmitt

Conservation and Management of the Habitats of Two Relict Butterflies in the Belgian Ardenne: Proclossiana eunomia and Lycaena helle 357

Philippe Goffart, Nicolas Schtickzelle, and Camille Turlure

Part VI: The Future of Relict Species

Review: Modelling Future Trends of Relict Species 373

Dennis Rödder and Johannes Dambach

Conservation of the Grey Bush Cricket Platycleis albopunctata (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) Under Differing Habitat Conditions: Implications From an Individual-Based Model 385

Eva M. Griebeler and Eckhard Gottschalk

Is the 'Lost World' Lost? High Endemism of Aphibians and Reptiles on South American Tepuis in a Changing Climate 401

Dennis Rödder, Andreas Schlüter, and Stefan Lötters

Population Genetics and Ecological Niche Modelling Reveal High

Fragmentation and Potential Future Extinction of the Endangered

Relict Butterfly Lycaena helle 417

Jan C. Habel, Bettina Augenstein, Marc Meyer, Gabriel Neve, Dennis Rödder, and Thorsten Assmann

Relict Species Research: Some Concluding Remarks 441

Jan C. Habel, Thomas Schmitt, and Thorsten Assmann

Index 443

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