Discussion

The genetic data show: (1) eight genetic groups mostly corresponding with the orographic structures of higher elevations over our study area, (2) a high genetic differentiation among populations within these groups, (3) different levels of genetic diversities among the mountain regions and (4) private alleles, endemic for the mountain areas. The fact that the isolation by distance effect is significant only in the Ardennes region suggests that the other areas were subject to more complex colonisation and movement patterns than may be explained by distance per se; this pattern is opposite to the one shown for Proclossiana eunomia (also, a species feeding exclusively on Polygonum bistorta). In this species, the areas of high elevation (Pyrenees and Cantabrian mountains) show a high isolation by distance effect compared with areas of lower elevation as the Ardennes (Neve et al. 2008).

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