Applying "general recipes" may be detrimental because the impact of management is not similar in different biotopes, with different species and/or ecological conditions. We must nevertheless remember that every management act has a potential negative impact and we are probably forced to admit some minimal loss in order to achieve management actions that will in the end prove to be positive. To minimize this potential loss, our recommendations follow several major lines:
1. Scientific monitoring of the impact of management should be improved by focusing more precisely on the requirements of species in terms of resources and by considering management impact on the different life stages of the species.
2. Unmanaged areas must be preserved in any implementation of a management procedure. They may serve as a comparison basis for monitoring and assessing the effect of management and also as a refuge for populations (Johst et al. 2006; Swengel and Swengel 2007).
3. Pluriannual rotational regimes (Oates 1995; Morris 2000) that leave some areas unmanaged every year must be clearly preferred over any static management.
4. Implementation of management methods should be decided on the basis of landscape composition. We then urge scientists to take into account the impact of management on the Population Viability Analyses that serve to elaborate conservation guidelines (Schtickzelle and Baguette 2009).
Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Michel Waeyenbergh, Anne Weiserbs, Gabriel Nève, Isabelle Convié, Isabelle Brasseur, Catherine Burnotte, Julie Choutt, Michel Baguette, Philippe Fayt, and Michel Pirnay who helped during field work. We are very grateful to Philippe Lebrun, Michel Baguette, Hans Van Dyck, Marc Dufrêne, and Pierre Gérard, who provided support at different stages of the work and Thomas Schmitt who commented on an earlier version of the manuscript. Camille Turlure acknowledges a PhD grant from the FRIA institution. Nicolas Schtickzelle is research associate of the Fund for Scientific Research-FNRS.
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