References

Allen PA (2006) Snowball Earth on trial. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 87(45):495 Allen MR, Gillett NP, Kettleborough JA, Hegerl G, Schnur R, Stott PA, Boer G, Covery G, Delworth TL, Jones GS, Mitchell JFB, Barnett TP (2006) Quantifying anthropogenic influence on recent near-surface temperature change. Surv Geophys 27(5):491-454 Alley RB, Marotzke J, Nordhaus WD, Overpeck JT, Peteet DM, Pielke RA Jr, Pierrehumbert RT, Rhines PB, Stocker TF, Talley LD, Wallace JM (2003) Abrupt climate change. Science 299:2005-2010

Archer D, Brovkin V (2008) Millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2. Clim Change

90:283-297 2

The BACC author team (2008) Assessment of climate change in the Baltic Sea basin. Springer, Berlin

Bard E, Frank M (2006) Climate change and solar variability: what's new under the Sun? Earth

Planet Sci Lett 248:1-14 Barth M, McFadden J, Sun J, Wiedinmyer C, Chuang P, Collins D, Griffin R, Hannigan M, Karl T, Kim S, Lasher-Trapp S, Levis S, Litvak M, Mahowald N, Moore K, Nandi S, Nemitz E, Nenes A, Potosnak M, Raymond TM, Smith J, Stroud C, Still C (2005) The coupling between land ecosystems and the atmospheric hydrological cycle. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 86(12):1738-1742

Bates BC, Kundzewicz ZW, Wu S, Palutikof JP (eds) (2008) Climate change and water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, pp. 210

Battarbee RW, Binney HA (eds) (2008) Natural climate variablility and global warming:

A Holocene perspective. Wiley-Blackwell, p 288 Beniston M, Stephenson DB, Christensen OB, Ferro CAT, Frei C, Goyette S, Halsnaes K, Holt T, Jylhü K, Koffi B, Palutikoff J, Schöll R, Semmler T, Woth K (2007) Future extreme events in

European climate; an exploration of Regional Climate Model projections. Clim Change 81:71-95

Berger A (1988) Milankovitch theory and climate. Rev Geophys 26:624-657 Berner RA (2004) The Phanerozoic carbon cycle: CO2 and O2. Oxford University Press, New York, p 158

Berry SL, Farquhar GD, Roderick ML (2005) Co-evolution of climate, vegetation, soil and air. In: Blöschl G, Sivapalan M (eds) Encyclopedia of hydrological sciences, vol 1, Theory, organisation and scale. Wiley, Chichester, pp 177-192 Bhend J, von Storch H (2008) Consistency of observed winter precipitation trends in Northern

Europe with regional climate change projections. Clim Dyn 31:17-28 Bonan GB (2008) Forests and climate change: Forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320:1444-1449 Bony S, Colman R, Kattsov VM, Allan RP, Bretherton CS, Dufresne J-L, Hall A, Hallegatte S, Holland MM, Ingram W, Randall DA, Soden DJ, Tselioudis G, Webb MJ (2006) How well do we understand and evaluate climate change feedback processes? J Clim 19:3445-3482 Botkin D, Saxe H, Araujo MB, Betts R, Bradshaw R, Cedhagen T, Chesson P, Davis MB, Dawson T, Etterson J, Faith DP, Guisan A, Ferrier S, Hansen AS, Hilbert D, Kareiva P, Margules C, New M, Skov F, Sobel MJ, Stockwell D (2007) Forecasting effects of global warming on biodiversity. Bioscience 57:227-236

Brasseur GP, Orlando JJ, Tyndall GS (eds) (1999) Atmospheric chemistry and global change.

Oxford University Press, New York, p 654 Broecker WS (1985) How to built a habitable planet?. Eldigio Press, New York Broecker WC, Stocker TF (2006) The Holocene CO2 rise: anthropogenic or natural? Eos

Broecker WS, Kunzig R (2008) Fixing climate: what past climate changes reveal about the current threat - and how to counter it. Simon & Schuster, New York, p 272 Brohan P, Kennedy JJ, Harris I, Tett SFB, Jones PD (2006) Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: a new dataset from 1850. J Geophys Res 111:D12106. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006548 Canadell JG, Le Quere C, Raupach M, Field C, Buitehuis E, Ciais P, Conway T, Gillett N, Houghton R, Marland G (2007) Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(47):18866-18870

Carslaw KS, Harrison RG, Kirkby J (2002) Cosmic rays, clouds and climate. Science 298:1732-1737

Church JA, White NJ (2006) A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophys Res Lett 33(1):L01602

Claussen M (2003) Simulation of Holocene climate change using climate-system models. In: Mackay A, Battarbee R, Birks J, Oldfield F (eds) Global change in the Holocene. Arnold, London, pp 422-434

Claussen M, Brovkin V, Calov R, Ganopolski A, Kubatzki C (2005) Did humankind prevent an early glaciation? Comment on Ruddiman's hypothesis of a pre-historic anthropocene. Clim Change 69:409-417

Cloud P (1978) Cosmos, Earth, and man: a short history of the universe. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, p 372

Crowley TJ (2000a) Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science 289:270-277 Crowley TJ (2000b) Carbon dioxide and Phanerozoic climate. In: Huber BT, MacLeod KG, Wing SL (eds) Warm climates in Earth history. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 425-444 Crutzen PJ, Stoermer EF (2000) The "Anthropocene". Global Change Newslett 41:12-13 Dai A (2006) Recent climatology, variability and trends in global surface humidity. J Clim 19:3589-3606

D'Arrigo R, Wilson R, Jacoby G (2006) On the long-term context for late twentieth century warming.

J Geophys Res 111:D03103. doi:10.1029/2005JD006352 Diffenbaugh NS, Pal JS, Giorgi F, Gao X (2007) Heat stress intensification in the Mediterranean climate change hotspot. Geophys Res Lett 34:L11706. doi:10.1029/2007GL030000

Donner LJ, Large WG (2008) Climate modeling. Annu Rev Environ Resour 33:2.1-2.17 Doney SC, Schimel DS (2007) Carbon and climate system coupling on timescales from. The

Precambrian to the Anthropocene. Annu Rev Environ Resourc 32:31-66 Easterling DR, Evans JL, PYa G, Karl TR, Kunkel KE, Ambenje P (2000a) Observed variability and trends in extreme climate events: a brief review. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 81(3):417-425 Easterling DR, Meehl GA, Parmesan C, Changnon SA, Karl TR, Mearns LO (2000b) Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts. Science 289:2068-2074 Emanuel KA (2005) Increasing destructiveness of tropical cyclones over the past 30 years. Nature 436:686-688

Fischlin A, Midgley GF, Price JT, Leemans R, Gopal B, Turley C, Rounsevell MDA, Dube OP, Tarazona J, Velichko AA (2007) Ecosystems, their properties, goods, and services. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 211-272 Fischer H, Kumke T, Lohmann G, Flöser G, Miller H, von Storch H, Negendank JFW (eds) (2004) The climate in historical times. Towards a synthesis of Holocene proxy data and climate models. Springer, Berlin, p 487 Fleming JR (2007) The climate engineers. Wilson Q 31:46-60

Foukal P, Fröhlich C, Spruit H, Wigley TML (2006) Physical mechanisms of solar luminosity variation, and its effect on climate. Nature 443:161-166 Ghil M (2002a) Climate variability: nonlinear aspects. In: Holton JR, Pyle J, Curry JA (eds)

Encyclopedia of atmospheric sciences. Academic, San Diego, CA, pp 432-438 Ghil M (2002b) Natural climate variability. In: Munn T (ed) Encyclopedia of global environmental change, vol 1. Wiley, Chichester, pp 544-49 Giorgi F, Bi X, Pal JS (2004) Mean, interannual variability and trends in a regional climate change experiment over Europe. II: climate change scenarios (2071-2100). Clim Dyn 23:839-858 Graham LP, Hagemann S, Jaun S, Beniston M (2007) On interpreting hydrological change from regional climate models. Clim Change 81:97-122 Gough DO (1981) Solar interior structure and luminosity variations. Sol Phys 74:21-34 Graedel TE, Crutzen PJ (1993) Atmospheric change: an earth system perspective. WH Freeman and Company, New York, p 446 Haigh JD (2007) The Sun and the Earth's climate", Living Rev Solar Phys. 4 http://www.livingre-

views.org/lrsp-2007-2, assesed 16.07.2008 Hansen J, Mki S, Ruedy R, Lo K, Lea DW, Medina-Elizade M (2006) Global temperature change.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:14288-14293 Hansen J, Sato M, Kharecha P, Russell G, Lea DW, Siddall M (2007a) Climate change and trace gases. Phil Trans R Soc A 365:1925-1954 Hansen J, Mki S, Ruedy R, Kharecha P, Lacis A, Miller RL, Nazarenko L, Lo K, Schmidt GA, Russell G, Aleinov I, Bauer S, Baum E, Cairns B, Canuto V, Chandler M, Cheng Y, Cohen A, Del Genio A, Faluvegi G, Fleming E, Friend A, Hall T, Jackman C, Jonas J, Kelley M, Kiang NY, Koch D, Labow G, Lerner J, Menon S, Novakov T, Oinas V, Ja P, Perlwitz Ju, Rind D, Romanou A, Schmunk R, Shindell D, Stone P, Sun S, Streets D, Tausnev N, Thresher D, Unger N, Yao M, Zhang S (2007b) Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study. Atmos Chem Phys 7:2287-2312 Hansen J (2007) Climate catastrophe. New Sci 195:30-34

Hartmann DL (1994) Global physical climatology. Academic, San Diego, CA, p 411 Hasselmann K (1976) Stochastic climate models, Part I: Theory. Tellus 28:473-485 Hasselmann K, Latif M, Hooss G, Azar C, Edenhofer O, Jaeger CC, Johannessen OM, Kemfert C, Welp M, Wokaun A (2003) The challenge of long-term climate change. Science 302:1923-1925

Held IM, Soden BJ (2000) Water vapor feedback and global warming. Annu Rev Energy Environ 25:441-475

Hoegh-Guldberg O, Mumby PJ, Hooten AJ, Steneck RS, Greenfield P, Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards AJ, Caldeira K, Knowlton N, Eakin CM, Iglesias-Prieto R, Muthiga N,

Bradbury RH, Dubi A, Hatziolos ME (2007) Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318:1737-1742 Hoegh-Guldberg O, Hughes L, McIntyre S, Lindenmayer DB, Parmesan C, Possingham HP,

Thomas CD (2008) Assisted colonization and rapid climate change. Science 321:345-346 Hoffert MI, Caldeira K, Benford G, Criswell DR, Green C, Herzog H, Katzenberger JW, Kheshgi HS, Lackner KS, Lewis JS, Manheimer W, Mankins JC, Marland G, Mauel ME, Perkins LJ, Schlesinger ME, Volk T, Wigley TML (2002) Advanced technology paths to global climate stability: energy for a greenhouse planet. Science 295:981-987 Hoffman PF, Schrag DP (2002) The snowball earth hypothesis: testing the limits of global change. Terra Nova 14:129-155

Holland HD (1984) The chemical evolution of the atmosphere and oceans. Princeton University

Press, Princeton, NJ 598 Houghton RA (2007) Balancing the global carbon budget. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 35:313-347

Hughes L (2000) Biological consequences of global warming: is the signal already apparent?

Trends Ecol Evol 15:56-61 Hulme M (2003) Abrupt climate change: can society cope? Phil Trans R Soc Lond A 361:2001-2019

Huntington TG (2006) Evidence for intensification of the global water cycle: review and synthesis. J Hydrol 319:83-95

Imbrie J, Imbrie KP (1979) Ice ages: solving the mystery. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, p 224

IPCC (2000) Special report on emission scenarios. In: Nakicenovic N, Swart R (eds) Cambridge

University Press, Cambridge, p 570 IPCC (2007a) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 996 IPCC (2007b) Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. In: Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds) Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 976 Jones PD, Mann ME (2004) Climate over past millennia. Rev Geophys 42:RG2002. doi:doi:

10.1029/2003RG000143 Jouzel J, Masson-Delmotte V, Cattani O, Dreyfus G, Falourd S, Hoffmann G, Minster B, Nouet J, Barnola JM, Chappellaz J, Fischer H, Gallet JC, Johnsen S, Leuenberger M, Loulergue L, Luethi D, Oerter H, Parrenin F, Raisbeck G, Raynaud D, Schilt A, Schwander J, Selmo E, Souchez R, Spahni R, Stauffer B, Steffensen JP, Stenni B, Stocker TF, Tison JL, Werner M, Wolff EW (2007) Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800, 000 years. Science 317(5839):793-796 Kasting JF (2005) Methane and climate during the Precambrian era. Precambrian Res 137:119-129 Kasting JF, Toon OB, Pollack JB (1988) How climate evolved on the terrestrial planets. Sci Am 258(2):90-97

Kasting JF, Catling DC (2003) Evolution of a habitable planet. Annu Rev Astron Astrophys 41:429-463 Kasting JF, Ono S (2006) Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years. Phil Trans R Soc B 361:917-929

Keeling CD, Bacastow RB, Bainbridge AE, Ekdahl CA, Guenther PR, Waterman LS (1976) Atmospheric carbon dioxide variations at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Tellus 28:538-551

Kerr JT, Kharouba H, Currie DJ (2007) The macroecological contribution to global change solutions. Science 316:1581-1584 Kiehl JT, Trenberth KE (1997) Earth's annual global mean energy budget. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78:197-208

Kiehl JT, Ramanathan V (eds) (2006) Frontiers of climate modeling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 367

Keith DW (2000) Geoengineering the climate: history and prospect. Annu Rev Energy Environ 25:245-284

Kirkby J (2008) Cosmic rays and climate. Surv Geophys 28:333-375

Kristjansson JE, Kristiansen J, Kaas E (2004) Solar activity, cosmic rays, clouds and climate - An update. Adv Space Sci 34:407-415 Kroepelin S, Verschuren D, Lezine AM, Eggermont H, Cocquyt C, Francus P, Cazet JP, Fagot M, Rumes B, Russell JM, Conley D, Schuster M, von Suchodoletz H, Engstrom DR (2008) Climate-driven ecosystem succession in the central Sahara: the last 6000 years. Science 320:765-768

Lamb HH (1970) Volcanic dust in the atmosphere, with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance. Philos Trans R Soc London, Ser A 266:425-533 Lamb HH (1995) Climate, history and the modern world, 2nd edn. Routledge, New York, p 464 Lean JL, Rind DH (2008) How natural and anthropogenic influences alter global and regional surface temperatures: 1889 to 2006. Geophys Res Lett 35:L18701. doi:10.1029/2008GL034864 Lee TM, Jetz W (2008) Future battlegrounds for conservation under global change. Proc R Soc B 275:1261-1270

Lenton TM, Held H, Kriegler E, Hall JW, Lucht W, Rahmstorf S, Schellnhuber HJ (2008) Tipping elements in the Earth system. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105:1786-1793 Loulergue L, Schilt A, Spahni R, Masson-Delmotte V, Blunier T, Lemieux B, Barnola JM, Raynaud D, Stocker TF, Chappellaz J (2008) Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the last 800, 000 years. Nature 453:383-386 Luthi D, Le Floch M, Bereiter B, Blunier T, Barnola JM, Siegenthaler U, Raynaud D, Jouzel J, Fischer H, Kawamura K, Stocker TF (2008) High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present. Nature 453:379-382 Mann ME (2007) Climate over the past two millennia. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci Lett 35:111-136

Mann ME, Bradley RS, Hughes MK (1998) Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature 392:779-787 Mann ME, Bradley RS, Hughes MK (1999) Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophys Res Lett 26:759-762 Mann ME, Jones PD (2003) Global surface temperature over the past two millennia. Geophys Res

Lett 30(15):1820. doi:doi: 10.1029/2003GL017814 Mann ME, Zhang Z, Hughes MK, Bradley RS, Miller SK, Rutherford S (2008) Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:13252-13257 Marsh N, Svensmark H (2000) Cosmic rays clouds and climate. Space Sci Rev 94:215-230 Mclntyre S, McKitrick R (2005) Hockey sticks, principal components and spurious significance.

Geophys Res Lett 32:L03710 Meehl GA, Arblaster JM, Tebaldi C (2005) Understanding future patterns of increased precipitation intensity in climate models. Geophys Res Lett 32:L18719 Midgley GF, Thuiller W, Higgins SI (2007) Plant species migration as a key uncertainty in predicting future impacts of climate change on ecosystems: progress and challenges. In: Canadell J, Pataki DE, Pitelka LF (eds) Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing World. Springer, Berlin, pp 129-137

NRC (2002) Abrupt climate change: inevitable surprises, US National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, National Academy Press NRC (2006) Surface temperature reconstructions for the last 2,000 Years. National Research Council, Committee on Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years. National Academies Press, Washington, DC Neelin JD, Battisti DS, Hirst AC, Jin FF, Wakata Y, Yamagata T, Zebiak SE (1998) ENSO theory.

J Geophys Res 103:14261-14290 Oki T, Kanae S (2006) Global hydrological cycles and world water resources. Science 313:1068-1072

Pacala SW, Socolow RH (2004) Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies. Science 305:968-972

Paillard D (2006) What drives the ice age cycle? Science 313:455-456

Pagani M, Caldeira K, Archer D, Zachos JC (2006) An ancient carbon mystery. Science 314:1556-1557

Pagano T, Sorooshian S (2006) Global water cycle (fundamentals, theory, mechanisms). In: Anderson

MG (ed) Encyclopedia of hydrological sciences, vol 5. Wiley, Chichester, pp 2697-2711 Parkinson CL (2006) Earth's Cryosphere: current state and recent changes. Annu Rev Environ Resour 31:33-60

Parmesan C, Ryrholm N, Stefanescu C, Hill JK, Thomas CD, Descimon H, Huntley B, Kaila L, Kullberg J, Tammaru T, Tennent WJ, Thomas JA, Warren M (1999) Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. Nature 399:579-583

Parmesan C, Yohe G (2003) A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421:37-42 Parmesan C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annu Rev

Ecol Evol Syst 37:637-669 Pavlov AA, Kasting JF, Brown LL, Rages KA, Freedman R (2000) Greenhouse warming by CH4

in the atmosphere of early Earth. J Geophys Res 105:11981-11990 Pearson PN, Palmer MR (2000) Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60

million years. Nature 406:695-699 Peixoto JP, Oort AH (1992) The physics of climate. American Institute of Physics, New York, p 522

Pielke R Jr, Wigley T, Green C (2008) Dangerous assumptions. Nature 452:531-532 Pierrehumbert RT (2002) The hydrologic cycle in deep time climate problems. Nature 419:191-198

Pierrehumbert RT (2005) Climate dynamics of a hard snowball Earth. J Geophys Res 110:D01111.

doi: 10.1029/2004JD005162 Pierrehumbert RT (2009) Principles of planetary climates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (in press)

Plattner GK, Knutti R, Joos F, Stocker TF, von Bloh W, Brovkin V, Cameron D, Driesschaert E, Dutkiewiz S, Eby M, Edwards NR, Fichefet T, Hargreaves JC, Jones CD, Loutre MF, Matthews HD, Mouchet A, Müller SA, Nawrath S, Price A, Sokolov A, Strassmann KM, Weaver AJ (2008) Long-term climate commitments projected with climate - carbon cycle models. J Clim 21:2721-2751 Quante M (2004) The role of clouds in the climate system. J Phys 121:61-86 Quante M, Matthias V (2006) Water in the Earth's atmosphere. J Phys 139:37-61 Rahmstorf S (2002) Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years. Nature 419:207-214

Rahmstorf S (2007) A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 315:368-370

Raible CC, Casty C, Luterbacher J, Pauling A, Esper J, Frank DC, Büntgen U, Roesch AC, Tschuck P, Wild M, Vidale PL, Schär C, Wanner H (2006) Climate variability-observations, reconstructions, and model simulations for the Atlantic-European and Alpine region from 1500-2100 AD. Clim Change 79(1-2):9-29 Räisänen J, Hansson U, Ullerstig A, Döscher R, Graham LP, Jones C, Meier HEM, Samuelsson P, Willen U (2004) European climate in the late twenty-first century: regional simulations with two driving global models and two forcing scenarios. Clim Dyn 22:13-31 Raymo ME, Ruddiman WF (1992) Tectonic forcing of late cenozoic climate. Nature 359(6391):117-122

Rial JA, Pielke RA Sr, Beniston M, Claussen M, Canadell J, Cox P, Held H, de Noblet-Ducoudre N, Prinn R, Reynolds J, Salas JD (2004) Nonlinearities, feedbacks and critical thresholds within the Earth's climate system. Clim Change 65(1-2):11-38 Robock A (2000) Volcanic eruptions and climate. Rev Geophys 38:191-219 Robock A (2008) 20 reasons why geoengineering may be a bad idea. Bull At Sci 64(2):14-18. doi:doi: 10.2968/064002006 59

Rohling EJ, Grant K, Hemleben Ch, Siddall M, Hoogakker BAA, Bolshaw M, Kucera M (2008)

High rates of sea-level rise during the last interglacial period. Nat Geosci 1:38-42 Rosenzweig C, Karoly D, Vicarelli M, Neofotis P, Wu Q, Casassa G, Menzel A, Root TL, Estrella N, Seguin B, Tryjanowski P, Liu C, Rawlins S, Imeson A (2008) Attributing physical and biological impacts to anthropogenic climate change. Nature 453:353-357 Royer DL, Bemer RA, Beerling DJ (2001) Phanerozoic atmospheric CO2 change: evaluating geochemical and paleobiological approaches. Earth-Sci Rev 54:349-392 Ruddiman WF (2003) The anthropogenic green-house era began thousands of years ago. Clim Change 61:261-293

Ruddiman WF (2005) Plows, plagues and petroleum: how humans took control of climate.

Princeton University Press, Princeton, p 272 Ruddiman WF (2008) Earth's climate: past and future, 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman & Company, New York, p 465

Rybski D, Bunde A, Havlin S, von Storch H (2006) Long-term persistence in climate and the detection problem. Geophys Res Lett 33:L06718. doi:10.1029/2005GL025591 Sabine C, Feely R, Gruber N, Key R, Lee K, Bullister J, Wanninkhof R, Wong C, Wallace D, Tilbrook B, Millero F, Peng T, Kozyr A, Ono T, Rios A (2004) The ocean sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305:367-371 Sagan C, Chyba C (1997) The early faint sun paradox. Science 276:1217-1221 Sala OE et al (2000) Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287:1770-1774 Scafetta N, West BJ (2006) Phenomenological solar contribution to the 1900-2000 global surface warming. Geophys Res Lett 33 doi:10.1029/2005GL025539 Scafetta N, West BJ (2007) Phenomenological reconstructions of the solar signature in the NH surface temperature records since 1600. J Geophys Res 112:D24S03. doi:doi:10.1029/2007JD008437 Schär C, Vidale PL, Lüthi D, Frei C, Haeberli C, Liniger MA, Appenzeller C (2004) The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves. Nature 427:332-336 Schneider SH (2001) Earth systems: engineering and management. Nature 409:417-421 Schneider SH (2008) Geoengineering: could we or should we make it work? Phil Trans R Soc 366:3843-3862

Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN (2006) Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, p 1203 Soden BJ, Jackson DL, Ramaswamy V, Schwarzkopf MD, Huang X (2005) The radiative signature of upper tropospheric moistening. Science 310:841-844 Solanki SK, Krivova N (2003) Can solar variability explain global warming since 1970? J

Geophys Res 108. doi:10.1029/2002JA009753 Solanki SK, Usoskin IG, Kromer B, Schussler M, Beer J (2004) Unusual activity of the Sun during recent decades compared to previous 11, 000 years. Nature 431:1084-1087 Steffen W, Crutzen PJ, McNeill JR (2007) The anthropocene: Are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature? Ambio 36:614-621 Stephens GL (2005) Cloud feedbacks in the climate system: a critical review. J Clim 18:237-272

Stott PA, Stone AD, Allen MR (2004) Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature 432:610-614

Tebaldi C, Hayhoe K, Arblaster JM, Meehl GA (2006) Going to the extremes- an intercomparison of model-simulated historical and future changes in extreme events. Clim Change 79:185-211

Thuiller W (2007) Biodiversity-climate change and the ecologist. Nature 448:550-552 Thuiller W, Albert C, Araujo MB, Berry PM, Cabeza M, Guisan G, Hickler T, Midgley GF, Paterson J, Schurr FM, Sykes MT, Zimmermann NE (2008) Predicting global change impacts on plant species distributions: future challenges. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 9:137-152

Tol RSJ (2008) Economic scenarios for global change. In: von Storch H, Tol RSJ, Flöser G (eds)

Envioronmental crises - science and policy. Springer, Berlin, pp 17-35 Trenberth KE (1992) Climate system modeling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 788

Trenberth KE, Fasullo J, Smith L (2005) Trends and variability in column-integrated atmospheric water vapor. Clim Dyn 24:741-758 Turcotte DL, Schubert G (2002) Geodynamics, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, p 456 UN (1992) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Report FCCC/ INFORMAL/84, GE.05-62220 (E), United Nations http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/ conveng.pdf

Wallace JM, Hobbs PV (2006) Atmospheric sciences: an introductory survey, 2nd edn. Academic, San Diego, CA 483

Walther GR, Post E, Convey P, Menzel A, Parmesan C, Beebee TJC, Fromentin JM, Hoegh-Guldberg

O, Bairlein F (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416:389-395 Walther GR (2003) Plants in a warmer world. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 6(3):169-185 Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Kong X, Shao X, Chen S, Wu J, Jiang X, Wang X, An Z (2008) Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224, 000 years. Nature 451:1090-1093

Wanner H, Beer J, Bütikofer J, Crowley TJ, Cubasch U, Flückiger J, Goosse H, Grosjean M, Joos F, Kaplan JO, Küttel M, Müller SA, Prentice IC, Solomina O, Stocker TF, Tarasovk P, Wagner M, Widmann M (2008) Mid- to late Holocene climate change: an overview. Quat Sci Rev 27:1791-1828

Washington WM, Parkinson CL (2005) An introduction to three dimensional climate modeling.

University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, p 354 Weart S (2008) The discovery of global warming. Revised and expanded edition. Harvard

University Press, Harvard 190 Webster PJ (1994) The role of hydrological processes in ocean-atmosphere interactions. Rev Geophys 32:427-476

Webster PJ, Holland GJ, Curry JA, Chang HR (2005) Changes in tropical cyclone number, duration and intensity in a warming environment. Science 309(5742):1844-1846 Witt A, Schumann AY (2005) Holocene climate variability on millennial scales recorded in

Greenland ice cores. Nonlin Processes Geophys 12:345-352 von Storch H (2008) Climate change scenarios - purpose and construction. In: von Storch H, Tol

RSJ, Flöser G (eds) Envioronmental crises - science and policy. Springer, Berlin, pp 5-15 von Storch H, Zorita E, Jones J, Dimitriev Y, Gonzalez-Rouco F, Tett S (2004) Reconstructing past climate from noisy data. Science 306:679-682 Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan L, Thomas E, Billups K (2001) Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to Present. Science 292:686-693

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment