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Phylogeographic Analyses of a Boreal-Temperate Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycete, Amanita muscaria, Suggest Forest Refugia in Alaska During the Last Glacial Maximum

József Geml, Rodham E. Tulloss, Gary A. Laursen, Nina A. Sazanova, and D. Lee Taylor

Abstract Beringia, including Alaska and North-Eastern Siberia, has long been a focal point for biogeographical research in a wide range of plant and animal taxa. Whether boreal forest refugia existed in Beringia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is a major but unanswered question in Quaternary science. We analysed DNA sequence data from Amanita muscaria using phylogenetic and coalescent methods to test whether this boreal-temperate ectomycorrhizal fungus was present in Alaska during the LGM. Our data indicates that there are at least two endemic groups showing no detectable migration from or to populations that survived the LGM in Southern refugia. One of these occurs in the boreal forests of Interior Alaska, while the other group is endemic to the maritime rainforests from Southeast Alaska to the Olympic peninsula. These results suggest genetic isolation preceding the LGM and support the hypothesis of glacial forest refugia in Interior Alaska and along the coast of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia.

Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 311 Irving I Building, 902 N. Koyukuk Drive, P.O. Box 757000, Fairbanks, AK99775-7000, USA e-mail: [email protected]

R.E. Tulloss

Res. Assoc. (hons.), New York Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 57, Roosevelt, Bronx, NJ 08555-0057, USA

G.A. Laursen

Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 311 Irving I Building, 902 N. Koyukuk Drive, P.O. Box 757000, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7000, USA

N.A. Sazanova

Laboratory of Botany, Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Far East Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Portovaya Str. 18, Magadan, 685000, Russia

D.L. Taylor

Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 311 Irving I Building, 902 N. Koyukuk Drive, P.O. Box 757000, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7000, USA

J.C. Habel and T. Assmann (eds.), Relict Species: Phylogeography and Conservation Biology, 173 DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-92160-8_9, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010

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