The distributions of species of the EMS as defined here include the Cordillera Cantábrica and range from there over the Pyrenees, Alps, and Apennines to the Carpathians and the mountains of the Northern and central Balkan Peninsula. They normally do not occur South of the Pyrenees or of the Italian Abruzzo, and are also lacking from the mountain ranges of the Southern Balkan Peninsula South of the Adamovic line (Ozenda 1988). Few species of this category occur throughout the entire outlined area. While some of these mountain species are restricted to a part of the EMS where they are fairly frequent, others exhibit much wider but scattered distribution areas.
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