This book focuses on relict species and describes their history, current status, and future trends. It presents a compilation of case studies representing different methodological approaches and different temporal and spatial scales, all meant to illustrate evolutionary processes and ecological traits of isolated remnant populations. The book is structured into five sections. Section 1 deals with the basics of climate change and the responses of species and ecosystems. Sections 2 and 3 deal with the effects of pre-glacial and glacial phenomena, and postglacial range expansions, on relict species. Section 4 includes conservation approaches to protect and preserve relict species. Finally, in Section 5, future trends of relict species and their projected distributional patterns are discussed. The book also includes four mini-reviews that highlight molecular techniques, the biogeography of Europe, cave species, and ecological niche modelling.
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