1. Eric Croddy, Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Comprehensive Survey for the Concerned Citizen (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002), chap. 8; Ed Regis, The Biology of Doom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), chap. 9.

2. Robin Clarke, The Silent Weapons (New York: David McKay, 1968), chap. 5; Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman, A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare (New York: Random House, 2002), chap. 7.

3. Alastair Hay, "A Magic Sword or a Big Itch: An Historical Look at the United States Biological Weapons Programme," Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 15 (1999): 215-234; William H. Rose, An Evaluation of Entomological Warfare as a Potential Danger to the United States and European NATO Nations (U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground: U.S. Army Test & Evaluation Command, 1981), available at Smoking Gun Archive, mosquitoi.html (accessed January 22, 2008).

5. Harris and Paxman, Higher Form of Killing, chap. 7.

6. Hay, "Magic Sword or a Big Itch"; Jeffrey A. Lockwood, "Entomological Warfare: A History of the Use of Insects as Weapons of War," Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 33 (1987): 76—82; Rose, Evaluation of Entomological Warfare.

8. "A History of Biological Warfare," available at the Gulf War Veterans Web site, (accessed January 22, 2008).

10. Clarke, Silent Weapons, p. 10.

12. Hay, "Magic Sword or a Big Itch."

13. Rose, Evaluation of Entomological Warfare.

14. Tom Mangold and Jeff Goldberg, Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological Warfare (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1999), chap. 4.

15. Harris and Paxman, Higher Form of Killing, p. 169.

16. Hay, "Magic Sword or a Big Itch."

17. Ibid.; Sean Murphy, Alastair Hay, and Steven Rose, No Fire, No Thunder: The Threat of Chemical and Biological Weapons (New York: Monthly Review, 1984), chap. 3.

18. Murphy, Hay, and Rose, No Fire, No Thunder, p. 39.

19. Harris and Paxman, Higher Form of Killing, chap. 7.

20. Regis, Biology of Doom, chap. 11.

21. During Soviet inspections of U.S. facilities in 1991, the Russians requested access to the "mosquito room" at Pine Bluff Arsenal. Finding a massive water-filled vat with newly refitted plumbing, the Soviets were certain they'd found evidence of an active, offensive program in entomological warfare. The Americans admitted that the pool had been updated, but they were able to show that the modified tank was not being used to produce mosquitoes for military operations but to raise catfish for civilian research; Mangold and Goldberg, Plague Wars, chap. 15.

22. "History of Biological Warfare."

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