1. Adrienne Mayor, Greek Fire, Poison Arrows and Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World (New York: Overlook Duckworth, 2003), chap. 6.

3. Guy Gugliotta, "The Robot with the Mind of an Eel: Scientists Start to Fuse Tissue and Technology in Machines," Washington Post, April 17, 2001.

4. Robin Clarke, The Silent Weapons (New York: David McKay, 1968), chap. 9.

5. Jane Black, "Enlisting Insects in the Military," Business Week, November 5, 2001, available at 8187.htm; Paul Stone, "Creatures Feature Possible Defense Applications," American Forces Press Service, July 28, 1999, available at specials/bees/natures.html.

6. John Roach, "U.S. Military Looks to Beetles for New Sensors," National Geographic News, March 14, 2003, available at news/2003/03/03i4_0303i4_secretweapons3.html.

7. Stone, "Creatures Feature Possible Defense Applications."

8. Daniel McCabe, "Building a Better Robot," McGillReporter, June 26, 2000, available at

9. Ibid; Peter Menzel and Faith D'Aluisio, Robo Sapiens: Evolution of a New Species (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 200i), chap. 3.

10. Menzel and D'Aluisio, Robo Sapiens, chap. 3.

13. Peter Garrison, "Microspies," Air and Space (April/May 2000): 54-61; Stone, "Creatures Feature Possible Defense Applications"; Jim Wilson, "Micro Warfare," Popular Mechanics (February 2001): 62-65.

14. Garrison, "Microspies," p. 60.

15. Insects can move their wings at phenomenal speeds, as exemplified by a midge that beats its wings 1,046 times per second. But the key to insect flight, as we shall see, is not wing-beat frequency but fluid density.

16. Menzel and D'Aluisio, Robo Sapiens, chap. 3.

17. Rachel Ross, "Robotic Insect Takes Off," Technology Review, July 19, 2007, available at

18. Rick Weiss, "Dragonfly or Insect Spy? Scientists at Work on Robobugs," Washington Post (October 9, 2007): A03.

19. Black, "Enlisting Insects in the Military"; Menzel and D'Aluisio, Robo Sapiens, chap. 3.

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