1. Gary L. Miller, "Historical Natural History: Insects and the Civil War," American Entomologist, 43 (1997): 227—245; online version available at http://

3. Paul E. Steiner, Disease in the Civil War: Natural Biological Warfare in 1861— 1865 (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1968), chap. 1.

5. Miller, "Historical Natural History: Insects and the Civil War."

6. Steiner, Disease in the Civil War, chap. 1.

7. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site provides information on the etiology, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of both malaria ( and typhoid ( typhoidfever_g.htm; accessed January 14, 2008).

8. Robert Harwood and Maurice James, Entomology in Human and Animal Health (New York: Macmillan, 1979); and Gary Mullen and Lance Durden, eds., Medical and Veterinary Entomology (New York: Elsevier, 2002).

9. Miller, "Historical Natural History: Insects and the Civil War."

10. Steiner, Disease in the Civil War, p. 214.

13. David W. Tschanz, "Yellow Fever and the Strategy of the Mexican-American War," Insects, Disease and History Web site, Entomology Group of Montana

State University, (accessed January 14, 2008).

14. Steiner, Disease in the Civil War, p. 9.

20. Miller, "Historical Natural History: Insects and the Civil War."

22. Jeffrey A. Lockwood, "Entomological Warfare: History of the Use of Insects as Weapons of War," Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 33 (1987): 76-82.

23. The conceptual seed of converting crop pests into warriors may have been planted during the Revolutionary War. After Hessian mercenaries (employed by the British) passed through New York, the farmers reported that the wheat crop was being severely damaged by the larvae of tiny midges. The Americans named the insect invader the "Hessian fly" and blamed the foreigners for having brought the pest in their straw bedding. Although nobody accused the Germans of intentionally introducing the fly, the potential for devastating an enemy's crops with a foreign insect could not have escaped military minds. The history of the Hessian fly in the United States is addressed in Michael Burgett's course on "Plagues, Pests and Politics," with the relevant information at (accessed January 14, 2008).

24. Molly Caldwell Crosby, The American Plague: The Untold Story of Yellow Fever, the Epidemic that Shaped Our History (New York: Berkley, 2006); and Andrew G. Robertson, "From Asps to Allegations: Biological Warfare in History," Military Medicine, 160 (1995): 369-373.

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