1. Robert K. D. Peterson, "The Role of Insects as Biological Weapons," included on the Insects, Disease and History Web site, Entomology Group of Montana State University, .htm (accessed January 23, 2008).

2. Jeffrey A. Lockwood, "Entomological Warfare: A History of the Use of Insects as Weapons of War," Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 33 (1987): 76-82.

3. Simon M. Whitby, Biological Warfare Against Crops (New York: Palgrave, 2002), chap. 11.

4. Author interview, March i4, 2008.

5. Gustavo Kouri, Maria G. Guzman, and José Bravo, "Hemorrhagic Dengue in Cuba: History of an Epidemic," Pan American Health Organization Bulletin, 20 (1986): 24-30.

7. William Schaap, "U.S. Biological Warfare: The 1981 Cuba Dengue Epidemic," Covert Action Information Bulletin, 17 (Summer 1982): 28—31.

8. Ellen Ray and William H. Schaap, Bioterror: Manufacturing Wars the American Way (New York: Ocean Press, 2003), p. 37.

9. Schaap, "U.S. Biological Warfare."

10. William H. Rose, An Evaluation of Entomological Warfare as a Potential Danger to the United States and European NATO Nations (U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground: U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command, 1981), p. 5, available at the Smoking Gun Archive, mosquitoi.html (accessed January 23, 2008).

14. Soviet secrecy and American openness create the appearance of western nations' having been more heavily involved in biological warfare. However, quite the opposite is most surely the case, as revealed by Ken Alibek, a Soviet colonel and the First Deputy Chief of the Soviet Union's offensive biological weapons program, who defected to the United States in 1992. Indeed, so similar were the U.S. and Soviet programs that he has concluded that there had to have been a spy within Fort Detrick; interview with Col. Charles Bailey, January 18, 2006. As for entomological warfare, the Soviets considered covert uses of mosquitoes and ticks as vectors of human and livestock diseases and various insects as carriers of plant pathogens. Other ventures included the development of automated mass-rearing facilities, the use of attractants to influence the movement patterns of introduced insects, and the application of radar for tracking migrations of mass releases. By the early 1980s, the Soviets abandoned their insect-vector program in favor of direct delivery systems for pathogens at a scale never contemplated by the Americans; Jonathan Ban, "Agricultural Biological Warfare: An Overview," in The Arena, 9 (Washington, D.C.: Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 2000).

15. Schaap, "U.S. Biological Warfare."

16. Raisa Pages, "Cuba: Washington's Objective Is to 'Cause Hunger, Desperation, and Overthrow the Government,' " Green Left Weekly, November 12, 2003, available at (accessed January 23, 2008).

17. "Biological Warfare Waged by the U.S. Against Cuba," available at the Cuba Solidarity Campaign Web site, Bio.html (accessed January 23, 2008).

18. "Working paper," submitted by Cuba to the Ad Hoc Group of the States Parties to the Convention of the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction, Twentieth Session, Action Brought by the People of Cuba Against the Government of the United States of America for Economic Damages Caused to Cuba, Geneva, June 21, 2000, wp417.pdf (accessed January 23, 2008).

20. A transcript of the interview is available from the Cuban Web site gobierno/documentos/2002/ing/m240502i.html (accessed January 23, 2008).

22. "Biological Warfare Waged by the U.S. Against Cuba."

23. "Working paper."

24. Raisa Pages, "Biological Warfare Against Cuba: Bee-Eating Insect Causes Losses ofTwo Million Dollars," Granma International, August 3, 2001, blythe .org/nytransfer-subs/200i-Caribbean-Vol-3/BIOLOGICAL_WARFARE_ AGAINST_CUBA (accessed January 23, 2008).

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment