Chapter

1. Eric Croddy, Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Comprehensive Survey for the Concerned Citizen (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002), chap. 8.

3. Valentin Bojtzov and Erhard Geissler, "Military Biology in the USSR, 192045," in Erhard Geissler and John E. van Courtland Moon (eds.), Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945, SIPRI Biological and Chemical Warfare Studies (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

5. Al Mauroni, Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Reference Handbook (Denver: ABC-CLIO, 2003), chap. 3.

7. Croddy, Chemical and Biological Warfare, p. 255.

9. Ed Regis, The Biology of Doom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project (New York: Henry Holt, 2000), p. 9.

12. Sheldon H. Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932—1945, and the American Cover-Up (New York: Routledge, 2002), chap. 11.

17. Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 11.

19. Barton J. Berenstein, "The Birth of the U.S. Biological-Warfare Program," Scientific American, 256 (1987): 116—121 (see 116).

20. J. B. S. Haldane, "Science and Future of Warfare," Chemical Warfare Bulletin,

21. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Study of the Historical, Technical, Military, Legal and Political Aspects of CBW, and Possible Disarmament Measures. Vol. I: The Rise of CB Weapons (New York: Humanities Press, 1975).

22. Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 11.

23. Gradon B. Carter and Graham S. Pearson, "British Biological Warfare and Biological Defence, 1925—45," in Geissler and van Courtland Moon, Biological and Toxin Weapons.

24. Donald Avery, "Canadian Biological and Toxin Warfare Research, Development and Planning, 1925—45," in Geissler and van Courtland Moon, Biological and Toxin Weapons; Regis, The Biology of Doom, chap. 2.

26. Tom Mangold and Jeff Goldberg, Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological Warfare (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1999), chap. 4.

28. William Patrick, Chief of Product Development Division at Fort Detrick, argued that dry powders, rather than insect vectors, were ultimately the ideal approach to dispersing pathogens because one didn't have "the problem of putting a living system within another living system" (author interview, March 14, 2008).

29. Joel Carpenter, "The First Intercontinental Weapon System: Japanese FuGo Balloons," at the Project 1947 Web site, project1947.com/gfb/fugo.htm (accessed January 18, 2008).

32. Avery, "Canadian Biological and Toxin Warfare Research, Development and Planning, 1925—45."

33. The scientists were most likely mass producing Drosophila melanogaster, which is commonly called a fruit fly. However, this species is in the family Drosophilidae, which is technically the pomace flies, although sometimes called the small fruit flies. The fruit flies, properly speaking, are members of the family Tephritidae, which includes such notorious pests as the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

34. Avery, "Canadian Biological and Toxin Warfare Research," p. 205.

35. Stanley P. Lovell, Of Spies and Stratagems (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1963), chap. 6.

39. Harvey A. Schultz, "100 Years of Entomology in the Department of Defense," in J. Adams (ed.), Insect Potpourri: Adventures in Entomology (Gainesville, Fla.: Sandhill Crane Press, 1992).

40. F. L. Soper, W. A. Davis, F. S. Markham, and L. A. Riehl, "Typhus Fever in Italy, 1943—1945, and Its Control with Louse Powder," American Journal of Hygiene, 45 (11947): 305—334; C. M. Wheeler, "Control of Typhus in Italy 1943—1944 by Use of DDT," American Journal of Public Health, 36 (1946): 119—129.

41. Wheeler, "Control ofTyphus in Italy," p. 122.

42. Schultz, "100 Years of Entomology in the Department of Defense."

43. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Study of the Historical, Technical, Military, Legal and Political Aspects of CBW, and Possible Disarmament Measures. Vol. VI: Technical Aspects of Early Warning and Verification (New York: Humanities Press, 1975).

44. We think of mites as having eight legs, and the adults do. However, the culprit on the Pacific Islands was the larval stage of the chigger, which feeds on warm-blooded animals. This early stage of the mite has six legs, and only later in its development does the creature gain another pair of legs.

45. Schultz, "100 Years of Entomology in the Department of Defense," p. 64.

48. Croddy, Chemical and Biological Warfare, chap. 10.

49. Schultz, "100 Years of Entomology in the Department of Defense."

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