1. Richard Holmes, ed., The Oxford Companion to Military History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), entries on the "Eastern Front (1941-45)" and "World War II."

2. Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague Upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation (New York: HarperCollins, 2004), chap. 8.

3. Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons, Transcripts of the Khabarovsk Trial; testimony of Sato Shunji (physician, major general, and chief of the Medical Division of the 5th Army of the Japanese Kwantung Army) (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1950), pp. 339-340.

4. Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony (Singapore: Yen Books, 1996), part 2.

5. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 8.

7. Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, chap. 4.

8. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 8.

9. The possibility of launching an entomological attack via balloons made a lasting impression on the Americans. In 1960, studies were still being conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Office of Naval Research on the survival of insects during high-altitude balloon flights. The official rationale for this research was to assess the biological effects of cosmic radiation in preparation for manned space flight. However, the veracity of this explanation was substantially undermined by the bizarre choice of insects as surrogates for humans. The government tested Oriental rat fleas and house flies—the insect vectors favored by the Japanese entomological warfare program; see W. N. Sullivan and C. N. Smith, "Exposure of House Flies and Oriental Rat Fleas on a High-Altitude Balloon Flight," Journal of Economic Entomology, 53 (1960): 247-248.

10. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 8.

12. Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, pp. 199-200.

13. Tien-wei Wu, "A Preliminary Review of Studies of Japanese Biological Warfare and Unit 731 in the United States," Century of China Web site, (accessed January 17, 2008).

14. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chaps. 8 and 9; Sheldon H. Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932—1945, and the American Cover-Up (New York: Routledge, 2002), chaps. 13-15.

15. Harris, Factories of Death, p. 294.

16. Ibid., p. 86. The claim that "scruples" precluded human testing of biological weapons in the United States was substantially, but not entirely, correct. San Quentin convicts were used as human guinea pigs by the Naval Research Unit at the University of California, Berkeley, to evaluate bubonic plague. None of the prisoners became seriously ill, although several developed mild symptoms. American scientists certainly did not engage in lethal studies of human subjects, but they did cross the line of human experimentation in this and several other instances; see Ed Regis, The Biology of Doom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), chap. 7.

17. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 9; Harris, Factories ofDeath, chap. 16.

18. Materials on the Trial, pp. 397-398.

19. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 10.

20. Materials on the Trial, testimony of Kawashima Kiyoshi (physician, major general, and chief of the Medical Service of the First Front Headquarters of the Japanese Kwantung Army).

21. Author interview, March 14, 2008.

22. Harris, Factories ofDeath, chap. 16.

24. Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, chap. 5.

25. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, pp. 173-174.

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