Chapter

1. The account can be found in an article by Conrad Berube at the Apiservices (apicultural) Web site, apicultura.com/articles/us/war_bees.htm (accessed January 10, 2008).

2. So as not to confuse various terms, a poison is any chemical substance causing injury or death to a living organism (e.g., plutonium, mustard gas, etha-nol, curare, and bee venom). A toxin is a biologically produced poison (e.g., ethanol, curare, and bee venom). A venom is a toxin that is injected by an organism's bite or sting (e.g., bee venom).

3. Adrienne Mayor, Greek Fire, Poison Arrows and Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World (New York: Overlook Duckworth, 2003), chap. 2. Hamish Robertson has a fine article on the subject of the San people's use of poisonous beetles at the Biodiversity Explorer Web site: biodiversityexplorer. org/beetles/chrysomelidae/alticinae/arrows.htm (accessed January 10, 2008).

5. Ibid.; J. H. Frank and K. Kanamitsu, "Paederus, sensu lato (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): Natural History and Medical Importance," Journal of Medical Entomology, 24 (1987): 155-191.

6. R. K. Armstrong and J. L. Winfield, "Paederus fuscipes Dermatitis: An Epidemic on Okinawa," American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 18 (1969): 147-150.

7. J. Piel, I. Hofer, and D. Hui, "Evidence for a Symbiosis Island Involved in Horizontal Acquisition of Pederin Biosynthetic Capabilities by the Bacterial Symbiont of Paederus fuscipes Beetles," Journal of Bacteriology, 186 (2004): 1280-1286.

12. Ibid.; Robert S. Root-Bernstein, "Infectious Terrorism," The Atlantic (May 1991): 44-50.

13. Using bees against Romans became something of an ancient refrain. Not only were these insects effective in the tunnels under Eupatoria and in the passes above Colchis, but the classical poet Virgil kept Caesar's soldiers from looting his valuables by storing them in beehives—a tactic mirrored two millennia later, when Otto Wiltschko, an East German spy, posed as a beekeeper and secreted a radio receiver in one of the hives. Unfortunately for Otto, his career as a spy was ended by Austrian authorities, who were less intimidated by stinging insects than were Roman soldiers (sustainable-gardening-tips.com/ Bees-in-Wartime.html; accessed January 10, 2008).

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