1. Richard Holmes, ed., The Oxford Companion to Military History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), entries on the "Eastern Front (1914-1918)" and "World War I."

2. David W. Tschanz, "Typhus Fever on the Eastern Front in World War I," Insects, Disease and History Web site, Entomology Group of Montana State University, (accessed January 18, 2008).

3. J. H. Frank and K. Kanamitus, "Paederus, sensu lato (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae): Natural History and Medical Importance," Journal of Medical Entomology, 24 (1987): 155-191.

4. Tschanz, "Typhus Fever on the Eastern Front in World War I"; and Robert K. D. Peterson, "Insects, Disease, and Military History," American Entomologist, 41 (1995): 147-160.

5. George B. Johnson, "The Battle Against Infectious Diseases," an article on the bioterrorism section of his Backgrounders Web site, Backgrounders/Bioterrorism/bioterror2.html (accessed January 18, 2008).

6. Lice were not the only insects to flourish in the trenches, nor were all these coinhabitants harmful to the soldiers. The dark, wet conditions were suitable for cave-dwelling glow worms. And these insects—along with dogs, monkeys, and bears—were honored in Britain's "Animals in War" memorial. Glow worms (family Lampyridae) were credited with providing light necessary for the troops to read maps in nighttime preparation for decisive assaults during the war; "UK Honors Glow Worm Heroes," CNN Web site, edition.cnn .com/2004/WORLD/europe/ii/24/uk.newwaranimals/index.html (accessed January 18, 2008).

7. Harvey A. Schultz, "100 Years of Entomology in the Department of Defense," in J. Adams, ed., Insect Potpourri: Adventures in Entomology (Gainesville, Fla.: Sandhill Crane Press, 1992); and David Payne, "The Other British War on the Western Front in the Great War: The Hygiene War," on the Western Front Association's Web site, research/theotherbritishwar.htm (accessed January 18, 2008).

8. Excerpt from the war memoir of James Brady can be found at the British Broadcast Corporation's Web site, memoiroi.shtml (accessed January 18, 2008).

9. Tschanz, "Typhus Fever on the Eastern Front in World War I"; Rosalyn S. Carson-DeWitt, "Trench Fever," online Encyclopedia of Medicine at (accessed January i8, 2008).

i0. Lisa A. Jackson and David H. Spach, "Emergence of Bartonella quintana Infection among Homeless Persons," Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2 (i996):


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