1. Robert K. D. Peterson, "Insects, Disease, and Military History," American Entomologist, 41 (1995): 147-160.
2. Adrienne Mayor, Greek Fire, Poison Arrows and Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World (New York: Overlook Duckworth, 2003), chap. 1.
4. Hans Zinsser, Rats, Lice and History (Edison, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2007), p. 112.
5. Peterson, "Insects, Disease, and Military History."
7. Robert Harwood and Maurice James, Entomology in Human and Animal Health (New York: Macmillan, 1979); and Gary Mullen and Lance Durden, eds., Medical and Veterinary Entomology (New York: Elsevier, 2002).
8. Although the arrival of A. aegypti in the New World was almost surely unintentional, the invasion of Hawaii by mosquitoes may have been a bizarre act of entomological warfare. These islands were free of mosquitoes until 1826, when the Wellington anchored at Maui. All accounts agree that the whaling ship's drinking-water casks were swimming with mosquito larvae. But here the stories diverge. According to one version, the sailors inadvertently released the insects into the local streams while freshening the ship's water supplies. A more intriguing account has it that the randy whalers were looking forward to fraternizing with the island's women. Knowing sailors, the local chief forbade them access to his village, and the men took their revenge by intentionally dumping the infested casks into nearby streams. This explanation was kindly provided by Dr. Dennis A. LaPointe of the USGS-Pacific Island Ecosystem Research Center in Hawaii.
9. Molly Caldwell Crosby, The American Plague: The Untold Story of Yellow Fever, the Epidemic that Shaped Our History (New York: Berkley, 2006).
10. The symptoms of yellow fever are described at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site: cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/yellowfever/index .htm (accessed January 10, 2008).
11. Peterson, "Insects, Disease, and Military History."
12. But alas, the French had not learned their lesson. When Ferdinand de Lesseps brought 500 young French engineers and 20,000 workmen to dig a canal across Panama in 1884, one-third of the laborers died and not a single engineer lived to draw his first month's pay; Peterson, "Insects, Disease and Military History."
13. Peterson, "Insects, Disease, and Military History."
14. Harwood and James, Entomology in Human and Animal Health; and Mullen and Durden, Medical and Veterinary Entomology.
15. Harwood and James, Entomology in Human and Animal Health; and Mullen and Durden, Medical and Veterinary Entomology.
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