Chapter

1. Erhard Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45," in Erhard Geissler and John E. van Courtland Moon (eds.), Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945, SIPRI Biological and Chemical Warfare Studies (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

2. Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-1945," p. 111.

3. The biology and history of this insect can be found at the University of Vermont's Extension fact sheet, Vern Grubinger, Colorado Potato Beetle; uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/factsheets/potatobeetle.html (accessed January 17, 2008).

4. John Burdon Sanderson Haldane, "Science and Future Warfare," Chemical Warfare Bulletin, 24 (1938): 7-17.

5. Jonathan Ban, Agricultural Biological Warfare: An Overview (Washington, D.C.: Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, 2000); Benjamin C. Garrett, "The Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War," Chemical Weapons Convention Bulletin, 33 (1996): 2-3; Geissler and Moon, Biological and Toxin Weapons, chap. 5.

6. Ban, "Agricultural Biological Warfare"; Garrett, "Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War."

7. Garrett, "Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War"; Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45."

8. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Study of the Historical, Technical, Military, Legal and Political Aspects ofCBW, and Possible Disarmament Measures. Vol. I: The Rise of CB Weapons (New York: Humanities Press, 1975); Robin Clarke, The Silent Weapons (New York: David McKay, 1968), chap. 3.

9. Although nerve gas was not unleashed, the Nazis made despicable use of Zyklon B, a cyanide-based chemical that had been developed as an insecticide in the early 1930s. From 1942 to 1943, this poison was used to exterminate people in concentration camps. Auschwitz alone pumped nearly 22 tons of this horrifically misused insecticide into its gas chambers; see Sean Murphy, Alastair Hay, and Steven Rose, No Fire, No Thunder: The Threat of Chemical and Biological Weapons (New York: Monthly Review, 1984); SIPRI, Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare. The only other use of an insecticide against humans in the Second World War came, as one might guess, at Pingfan. During a failed escape attempt, prisoners became trapped within the inner courtyard and the Japanese decided to subdue them using chloropicrin, a fumigant for soil and wood pests. At low levels it functions as a tear gas, but the Japanese used enough to induce pulmonary edema. After the escapees drowned in their own fluids, the Japanese decided the insecticide was not a viable riot control agent; see Sheldon H. Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932—1945, and the American Cover-Up (New York: Routledge, 2002), chap. 6.

10. Garrett, "Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War"; Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45."

11. Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45," p. 98.

12. Garrett, "Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War"; Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45."

13. Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45."

15. Dale B. Gelman, Robert A. Bell, Lynda J. Liska, and Jing S. Hu, "Artificial Diets for Rearing the Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata," Journal of Insect Science, 7 (2001): i-11.

16. Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45," p. 124.

17. Garrett, "Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War"; Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, i923-45."

18. Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45"; Jeffrey A. Lockwood, "Entomological Warfare: History of the Use of Insects as Weapons of War," Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 33 (1987): 76-82.

19. Garrett, "Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War," p. 3.

20. "When the Nazis Tried to Starve Out Britain by Beetle-Bombing Crops," International Herald Tribune (February 25, 1970): 5.

22. Robert K. D. Peterson, "The Role of Insects as Biological Weapons," Insects, Disease and History Web site, Entomology Group of Montana State University, entomology.montana.edu/historybug/insects_as_bioweapons.htm (accessed January i7, 2008).

23. Garrett, "Colorado Potato Beetle Goes to War," p. 3.

24. Ibid.; Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45."

25. Geissler, "Biological Warfare Activities in Germany, 1923-45."

26. Milton Leitenberg, New Russian Evidence on the Korean War Biological Warfare Allegations: Background and Analysis, a report from the Cold War International History Project, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Web site, kimsoft.com/2000/germberia.htm (accessed January 17, 2008).

28. Mark Wheelis, Lajos Rozsa, and Malcolm Dando, Deadly Cultures: Biological Weapons Since 1945 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006), p. 353.

29. United Nations, Report of the Secretary General, Chemical and Bacteriological (Biological) Weapons and the Effects of their Possible Use, Document A/7575/ Rev. 1, S/9292/Rev. 1 (1969).

31. Dmitry Litovkin, "Valentin Yevstigneyev on Issues Relating to Russian Biological Weapons," Yaderny Kontrol Digest, 11 (Summer 1999), pircenter.org/ board/article.php3?artid=77 (accessed January 17, 2008); Benjamin C. Garrett, "A Plague of Locusts," Nonproliferation, Demilitarization, and Arms Control, 6 (Fall 1999/Winter 2000): 11-12.

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