1. Erhard Geissler, A New Generation of Biological Weapons in Biological and Toxin Weapons Today (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

2. Arthur W. Rovine, "Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law," American Journal of International Law, 69 (1975): 382—405, esp. p. 404.

3. Alastair Hay, "A Magic Sword or a Big Itch: An Historical Look at the United States Biological Weapons Programme," Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 15 (1999): 215—234.

4. Eric Croddy, Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Comprehensive Survey for the Concerned Citizen (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2002), chap. 7.

5. Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg, and William Broad, Germs: Biological Weapons and America's Secret War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002), chap. 11.

6. New York City's pest-management infrastructure was not particularly primed for response to a vector-borne disease outbreak. A September 8,1999, story in the New York Times asserted that "New York City has one of the least aggressive mosquito-control programs in the region, with virtually no preventive maintenance and a budget that is less than 6 percent of that in nearby Suffolk County, whose human population is only one-fifth the size of New York's." While the city's mosquito-abatement program was rather limited, the fact remains that New York's capacity to mobilize resources in response to a health emergency was perhaps unmatched in the country.

8. Division of Vector Borne Infectious Diseases, "West Nile Virus," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site, (accessed January 25, 2008).

9. "CIA concludes that Virus Outbreak Not Bio-Terrorism," Institute for Counter-Terrorism Web site, 2i2.i50.54.i23/spotlight/det.cfm?id=339 (accessed January 25, 2008); Richard Preston, "West Nile Mystery," The New Yorker (October 18—25, 1999): 90—107.

10. Preston, "West Nile Mystery."

12. Michael Jordan, "Experts Debunk Iraqi Role in West Nile Virus Spread," Jewish Daily Forward, February 8, 2002 (no longer posted online, the author can provide a hard copy).

13. Sharon L. Spradling, The Practicality of Using West Nile Virus as a Biological Weapon, Research report submitted to the Air Command and Staff College, Air University, Maxwell Air Force Base, April 2001.

15. Ibid.; Jordan, "Experts Debunk Iraqi Role in West Nile Virus Spread."

16. Preston, "West Nile Mystery."

18. "CIA Concludes That Virus Outbreak Not Bio-Terrorism," Institute for Counter-Terrorism.

19. Jason Pate and Gavin Cameron. "Covert Biological Weapons Attacks Against Agricultural Targets: Assessing the Impact Against U.S. Agriculture," Discussion Paper 2001-9, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, 2001, p. 17.

20. Geissler, A New Generation of Biological Weapons.

21. FAO Agriculture and Consumer Protection, "Preparation of Rift Valley Fever Contingency Plans," FAO Corporate Document Repository of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, available at DOCREP/005/Y4i40E/y4i40e04.htm (accessed January 25, 2008); Tara K. Harper, "TKH Virology Notes: Rift Valley Fever," Tara K. Harper's Web site, (accessed January 25, 2008); Karen Miller, "Rift Valley Fever," [email protected] Web site, y2002/i7apr_rvf.htm (accessed January 25, 2008); Special Pathogens Branch, "Rift Valley Fever," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site, (accessed January 25, 2008).

22. Miller, "Rift Valley Fever."

24. FAO Agriculture and Consumer Protection, "Preparation of Rift Valley Fever Contingency Plans."

25. Although Bailey considers Rift Valley fever as the arthropod-borne disease of greatest concern to national defense, he also has raised the specter of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. The disease was named for the disjunctive regions where it was found in the 1940s and 1950s. The viral pathogen is transmitted by various ticks—some with close cousins in the United States. About five days after being bitten, the victim experiences fever, chills, headache, vomiting, and severe muscular pains. After another few days, internal bleeding culminates in massive hemorrhaging in the stomach and intestines, leading to death in one-third of the patients. Even if the disease is eradicated from the local human population, cattle, sheep, and small mammals provide a reservoir for the virus; interview with author, January 18, 2006. Interview with author, January 18, 2006.

A similar scenario was described by William Patrick, former chief of the Product Development Division at Ft. Detrick, who imagined infection of 30,000 mosquito eggs with Venezuelan equine encephalitis, which "nobody at our security stations ever looks for" (author interview, March 14, 2008). Interview with author, October 23, 2007.

Doug McGinnis, "Looking for Loopholes," Beef Magazine, July 1, 2004, available at Jocelyn Selim, "Virus Code Red," Discover Magazine, 26 (2005): 14. Amy L. Becker, "Scientists Worry That Rift Valley Fever Could Reach the U.S.," Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy Web site, (accessed January 25, 2008).

Mike Stobbe, "CDC Reports West Nile Cases Up," July 17, 2006,

Associated Press, available at RedOrbit Breaking News Web site, redorbit


Melissa Lee Phillips, "After the Flood: West Nile?" Mosquito Views (Spring

Amanda Gardner, "West Nile Laying Low, So Far," Health Day News, July 14, 2006, available at the Healing Well Web site, .php?p=newsi&id=533805.

Christopher William Ratigan, The Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus^; Spatial, Ecological, and Human Implications in Southeast Virginia, Master's thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia. To be more precise, the Asian tiger mosquito had been seen before in the United States. As early as 1946 the insect was reported in isolated incidents involving very few larvae, which mosquito control programs managed to effectively suppress; J. J. Pratt, R. H. Heterick, J. B. Harrison, and L. Haber, "Tires as a Factor in the Transportation of Mosquitoes by Ships," Military Surgeon, 99 (1946): 785-788.

Robert K. D. Peterson, "The Role of Insects as Biological Weapons," Insects, Disease and History Web site, Entomology Group of Montana State University, Geissler, New Generation of Biological Weapons.

A. A. James, "Engineering Mosquito Resistance to Malaria Parasites: The Avian Malaria Model," Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 32 (2002):


Interview with author, October 23, 2007.

Debora MacKenzie, "Run, Radish, Run," New Scientist (December 1999): 36-39.

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