1. Richard Sair, The Book of Torture and Executions (Toronto: Golden Books, 1944); and a Wikipedia entry, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scaphism (accessed January 10, 2008).
2. David Quammen, Natural Acts (New York: Nick Lyons Books/Schocken Books, 1985).
3. Sair, Book of Torture and Executions.
4. Gordon C. Baldwin, A Story of the Chiricahua and Western Apache (Tucson, Ariz.: Dale Stuart King, 1965); Paul I. Wellman, Death in the Desert: The Fifty Years' War for the Great Southwest (New York: Macmillan, 1935); David Roberts, Once They Moved Like the Wind: Cochise, Geronimo, and the Apache Wars (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993).
5. Jesse Green, ed., Zuni: Selected Writings of Frank Hamilton Cushing (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979).
6. The story of Stoddart and Conolly is pieced together from Edward A. Allworth, The Modern Uzbeks: From the Fourteenth Century to the Present, A Cultural History (Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1990); Alexander Burnes, Travels into Bokhara (London: Oxford University Press, 1973); Peter Hopkirk, The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia (New York: Kodansha, 1992); Fitzroy Maclean, Back to Bokhara (Oxford, U.K.: Alden, 1959); and Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac, Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia (Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1999).
7. Josef Wolff, "Ameer of Bokhara Nasir Ullah," Report of Josef Wolff 1843-1845, available at geocities.com/Athens/5246/amir.html (accessed January 10, 2008).
8. Hopkirk, Great Game.
9. Penny J. Gullan and Peter S. Cranston, The Insects: An Outline of Entomology (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2000).
10. Maclean, Back to Bokhara.
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