1. Floyd P. Horn and Roger G. Breeze, "Agriculture and Food Security," in Food and Agricultural Security Special Issue, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 894 (1999): 11.

2. Robert P. Kadlec, "Biological Weapons for Waging Economic Warfare," in Battlefield of the Future, ed. Barry R. Schneider and Lawrence E. Grinter, Air War College Studies in National Security, vol. 3 (Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, 1995), chap. 10, available at battle/chpi0.html.

3. "State: No Fine in Ant-Bite Death," St. Petersburg Times, July 13, 2001, available at


4. The biology, history, and damage of the red imported fire ant are synthesized from C. R. Allen, D. M. Epperson, and A. S. Garmestani, "Red Imported Fire Ant Impacts on Wildlife: A Decade of Research," American Midland Naturalist, 152 (2004): 88-103; A. Flores and J. Core, "Putting Out the Fire," Journal of Agricultural Research, 52 (2004): 12-14; M. T. Henshaw, N. Kunzmann,

C. Vanderwoude, M. Sanetra, and R. H. Crozier, "Population Genetics and History of the Introduced Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren) in Australia," Australian Journal of Entomology, 44 (2005): 37—44; S. W. Taber, Fire Ants (College Station, Tex.: Texas A&M University Press, 2000); S. B. Vinson, "Invasion of the Red Imported Fire Ant: Spread, Biology, and Impact," American Entomologist, 43 (1997): 23—38.

5. U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, "Effects of Urban Forests and Their Management on Human Health and Environmental Quality: Asian Longhorned Beetle," available at the USDA Forest Service Web site, (accessed January 24, 2008).

6. The biology, history, and damage of the Asian longhorned beetle are synthesized from R. A. Haack, K. R. Law, V. C. Mastro, H. S. Ossenburgen, and B. J. Raimo, "New York's Battle with the Asian Long-Horned Beetle," Journal of Forestry, 95 (1997): 11—15; D. J. Nowak, J. E. Pasek, R. A. Sequeira,

D. E. Crane, and V. C. Mastro, "Potential Effect of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cermabycidae) on Urban Trees in the United States," Journal of Economic Entomology, 94 (2001): 116—122; S. W. Ludwig, L. Lazarus, D. G. McCullough, K. Hoover, S. Montero, and J. C. Sellmer, "Methods to Evaluate Host Tree Suitability to the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis,," Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 20 (2002): 175—180; National Agricultural Pest Information System, "Asian Longhorned Beetle," available at the Purdue University Web site; M. T. Smith, J. Bancroft, G. Li, R. Gao, and S. Teale, "Dispersal of Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae), Environmental Entomology, 30 (2001): 1036—1040.

7. D. Cappaert, D. G. McCullough, T. M. Poland, and N. W. Siegert, "Emerald Ash Borer in North America: A Research and Regulatory Challenge," American Entomologist, 51 (2005): 152—163.

8. Kadlec, "Biological Weapons for Waging Economic Warfare."

9. Kadlec's scenarios were not limited to the United States. As the world's third-largest producer of cotton, Pakistan derives nearly 60 percent of its export income from this one commodity. If India, for example, wanted to cripple its neighbor without the international condemnations associated with military action, an insect invasion would be ideal. By Kadlec's estimates, even a 15 percent loss in production would seriously undermine Pakistan's economy. Such dependence on a single export crop is not unusual in nonindustrial countries, and Kadlec suggests that the United States should be very concerned with entomological attacks on the agriculture—and hence the socioeconomic stability—of our allies in the developing world; Kadlec, "Biological Weapons for Waging Economic Warfare."

10. The biology, history, and damage of the glassy-winged sharpshooter and Pierce's disease are synthesized from P. C. Andersen, B. V. Brodbeck, and

R. F. Mizell, III, "Plant and Insect Characteristics of Homalodisca coagulata on Three Host Species: A Quantification of Assimilate Extraction," Netherlands Entomological Society, 107 (2003): 57-68; Committee on California Agriculture and Natural Resources, California Agricultural Research Priorities: Pierce's Disease (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2004); R. A. Redak, A. H. Purcell, R. S. Lopes, M J. Blua, R. F. Mizell III, and P. C. Andersen, "The Biology of Xylem Fluid-Feeding Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa and Their Relation to Disease Epidemiology," Annual Review of Entomology, 49 (2004): 243-262; University of California, Grape Pest Management (Berkeley, Calif.: U.C. Ag Sciences Publications, 1981); University of CaliforniaRiverside, "Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter Resources," Insect Information available from the University of California-Riverside Web site, entomology. (accessed January 24, 2008).

11. Ranajit Bandyopadhyay and Richard A. Frederiksen, "Contemporary Global Movement of Emerging Plant Diseases," in Food and Agricultural Security Special Issue, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 894 (1999).

12. Barry H. Thompson, "Where Have All My Pumpkins Gone? The Vulnerability of Insect Pollinators," in Food and Agricultural Security Special Issue, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 894 (1999).

13. United Nations, Chemical and Bacteriological (Biological) Weapons and the Effects of Their Possible Use, United Nations Report to the Secretary General, A/7575/Rev.i, S/9292/Rev. 1 (1969).

14. Toyin Ajayi, "Smallpox and Bioterrorism," Stanford Journal of International Relations, 3 (2002), available at a Stanford Web site, sjir/3.2.02_ajayi.html.

15. The biology, history, damage, and control of the screwworm are synthesized from W. G. Bruce and W. J. Sheely, "Screwworms in Florida," University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin, 86 (1936); R. C. Bushland, E. F. Knipling, and A. W. Lindquist, "Eradication of the Screw-Worm Fly by Releasing Gamma Ray-Sterilized Males Among the Natural Population," Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, 12 (1956): 216-220; W. G. Eden and C. Lincoln, "The Southwestern Screwworm Eradication Program," A Review Conducted at the Direction of the Congress of the United States (Fayetteville, Ark.: University of Arkansas, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1974.); O. H. Graham and J. L. Hourrigan, "Eradication Programs for the Arthropod Parasites of Livestock," Journal of Medical Entomology 13 (1977): 643-647.

16. Veterinary Services, "Screwworm," available at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Web site, aphis (accessed January 24, 2008).

17. National Research Council of the National Academies, Countering Agricultural Bioterrorism (Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 2003).

18. Actually, the government's stern legal warning regarding dissemination of the document cites the wrong part of the federal code, referring to a provision exempting material that is "related solely to the internal personnel rules and practices of an agency." The federal law that the agency presumably meant to use exempts information that is "to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy." One can only hope that the nation's commitment to security is more keenly supervised than its attention to legality. The error aside, I was granted access to the material with the understanding that I would recount the contents only through paraphrasing.

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