Chapter

1. Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony (Singapore: Yen Books, i996), chap. i.

2. Ishii's early life is described in Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague Upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation (New York: HarperCollins, 2004), chap. i; Gold, Unit 731 Testimony; and Sheldon H. Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932—1945, and the American Cover-Up (New York: Routledge, 2002), chap. 2.

3. Harris, Factories ofDeath, chap. 2; Ed Regis, The Biology ofDoom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project (New York: Henry Holt, 2000), chap. i.

4. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 1; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 2.

5. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 1; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 2.

6. Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 4; Regis, Biology of Doom, chap. 1.

7. Most of the military scientists in Japan and other nations referred to biological weapons as "bacteriological weapons" at this time, but this term technically includes only those arms that are based on bacteria. Scientists clearly meant to include other life forms, so "biological weapons/warfare" is a more inclusive term that covers not only bacteria but also fungi, rickettsia, viruses, and—of course—insects.

8. Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, chap. 1.

9. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 1; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 1; and Richard Holmes, ed., The Oxford Companion to Military History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), entry on "Manchurian Campaign."

10. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 2; Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, chap. 2; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 3.

11. From an account by Dong Zhen Yu in Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 3.

13. Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman, A Higher Form of Killing (New York: Random House, 1983), chap. 4.

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