1. Alastair Hay, "A Magic Sword or a Big Itch: An Historical Look at the United States Biological Weapons Programme," Medicine, Conflict and Survival, 15 (1999): 215—234.

2. The first time that herbicides were used in warfare, the British sprayed 2,4-D and 2,4,5,-T in Tanganyika and Kenya. The ultimate objective was to protect their troops by depriving tsetse flies (Glossina)—the vectors of sleeping sickness—of shady vegetation that protected them from the blistering midday heat; Simon M. Whitby, Biological Warfare Against Crops (New York: Palgrave, 2002), chap. 8.

3. John Cookson and Judith Nottingham, A Survey of Chemical and Biological Warfare (New York: Monthly Review, 1969), p. 67.

4. United Nations, Chemical and Bacteriological (Biological) Weapons and the Effects of Their Possible Use, United Nations Report to the Secretary General, A/7575/Rev. 1, S/9292/Rev. 1 (1969).

5. While rats have long been considered a reservoir for the pathogen, recent studies suggest that all mammals are dead-end hosts. However, the rickettsia responsible for scrub typhus can persist even without rats' serving as warmblooded incubators. It seems that chiggers can function as both a reservoir and vector. So, even without rats, the pathogen can be passed between generations of mites.

6. Harvey A. Schultz, "100 Years of Entomology in the Department of Defense," in J. Adams (ed.), Insect Potpourri: Adventures in Entomology (Gainesville, Fla.: Sandhill Crane Press, 1992).

7. Robin Clarke, The Silent Weapons (New York: David McKay, 1968), chap. 4; Jeffrey A. Lockwood, "Entomological Warfare: A History of the Use of Insects as Weapons of War," Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 33 (1987): 76-82.

8. Roger Sutherland, "The Importance of Bees in War Time," available at (accessed January 22, 2008).

9. Tom Mangold and John Penycate, The Tunnels of Cu Chi (New York: Berkeley, 1986), chap. 11.

10. FAO Agriculture and Consumer Protection, "The Giant Honeybee, Apis dor-sata," FAO Corporate Document Repository of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, available at X0083E02.htm (accessed January 22, 2008).

11. Sutherland, "Importance of Bees in War Time."

12. John T. Ambrose, "Insects in Warfare," Army (December 1974): 33-38.

13. "When Killing Just Won't Do," an excerpted glossary from Nonlethal Weapons: Terms and References, a report published by the USAF Institute for National Security Studies, available at the Harper's magazine Web site, (accessed January 22, 2008).

14. John Mann, Murder, Magic and Medicine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), p. 48.

15. Thomas D. Seeley, Joan W. Nowicke, Matthew Meselson, Jeanne Guillemin, and Pongthep Akratanakul, "Yellow Rain," Scientific American (September 1985): 128—137; Sterling Seagrave, Yellow Rain: A Journey Through the Terror of Chemical Warfare (New York: M. Evans, 1981).

16. What caused the Hmong's maladies remains a mystery. But lest we be too smug about experts mistaking insect artifacts for serious threats, just a few years ago the Secret Service thought they'd found evidence that somebody had fired a .45 caliber bullet into the wooden window frame of a government building—only to learn that the hole was the work of the Eastern carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica; Al Greene, "The .45 caliber bee," Pest Control Technology online magazine, available at .asp?ID=2627&IssueID=io8 (accessed January 22, 2008).

17. Tom Mangold and Jeff Goldberg, Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological Warfare (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1999), chap. 7.

18. Ken Alibek and Steve Handelman, BIOHAZARD: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World—Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It (New York: Random House, 1999).

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