1. Arthur H. Westing, ed., Cultural Norms, War and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).

2. Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman, A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare (New York: Random House,

3. Harris and Paxman, Higher Form of Killing, chap. 5.

4. Allan S. Krass, "The Environmental Modification Convention of 1977: The Question of Verification," in Arthur H. Westing (ed.), Environmental Warfare: A Technical, Legal and Policy Appraisal (London: Taylor & Francis, 1984), pp. 65-76.

5. National Research Council of the National Academies (NRC), Countering Agricultural Bioterrorism (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press,

6. Robin Clarke, The Silent Weapons (New York: David McKay, 1968), chap. 7.

7. Author interview, October 12, 2007.

8. Anne Kohnen, "Responding to the Threat of Agroterrorism: Specific Recommendations for the United States Department of Agriculture," Discussion Paper 2000-29, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

9. Michael V. Dunn, "The Threat of Bioterrorism to U.S. Agriculture," in Food and Agricultural Security Special Issue, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 894 (1999): 186.

Notes to Pages 302-305 | 359

10. Ron Sequeira, "Safeguarding Production Agriculture and Natural Ecosystems Against Biological Terrorism: A U.S. Department of Agriculture Emergency Response Framework," in Food and Agricultural Security Special Issue, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 894 (1999): 65.

11. Jonathan Ban, "Agricultural Biological Warfare: An Overview," Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute (2000): 1.

12. Radford G. Davis, "Agricultural Bioterrorism," AIBS ActionBioscience Web site, (accessed January 28, 2008).

13. Jason Pate and Gavin Cameron, "Covert Biological Weapons Attacks Against Agricultural Targets: Assessing the Impact Against U.S. Agriculture," Discussion Paper 2001-9, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., p. 3.

14. NRC, Countering Agricultural Bioterrorism, p. 22.

19. The possibility that the Department of Homeland Security is making the country less secure, at least in some particular realms, also applies to the ARS. According to Letchworth, "Regulations have narrowed the base of laboratories, people, and samples as scientists leave the field. There were serious discussions of emptying the freezers [of the Arthropod Borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory] into the autoclave to destroy the specimens rather than trying to meet the data requirements of Homeland Security to be done with it. This is like burning books in the name of security. We are becoming less and less secure because we're losing people, facilities, and reference isolates." Interview with author, October 12, 2007.

20. Chris Clayton, "Reports Cite Flaws in Ag Inspections," Web site, (accessed January 28, 2008); Roger Johnson (North Dakota Agriculture Commissioner), written statement before the House Agriculture Committee on Transferring USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) to the proposed Department of Homeland Security, June 26, 2002, Testimony%202002/APHIS-Homeland%20Security%20Testimony.pdf (accessed January 28, 2008).

21. In response to the reports of the GAO and the USDA's Office of Inspector General, the agency has formed a "joint task force" that has developed action plans with recommendations for the USDA and DHS. At the same time, my communications with Melissa O'Dell (December 10, 2007), an APHIS public affairs specialist, made it clear the official position of APHIS is that the agency is even better prepared to protect the country in partnership with DHS than it was prior to the reorganization. In short, it seems that the USDA

takes the position that there really is no problem, but if there was a problem, then they're fixing it.

22. Kate Campbell, "Congressional Hearing Triggers Alarm over Lax Pest Inspections," October 24, 2007, California Farm Bureau Federation Web site, 846348A85632i729A 2F36734D1A7 (accessed January 28, 2008).

23. Clayton, "Reports Cite Flaws in Ag Inspections."

24. WNBZ, "Schumer: More Funding Needed for Invasives," May 26, 2006, http:// (accessed January 28, 2008).

25. Dianne Feinstein, "Commentary: Agricultural Inspections Are Crucial to Our Nation's Crops," April i8, 2007, California Farm Bureau Federation Web site, 9DCE49E64C885B (accessed January 28, 2008).

26. Emergency Preparedness and Response, "Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site, agentlist.asp (accessed January 28, 2008).

27. Terry N. Mayer, "The Biological Weapon: A Poor Nation's Weapon of Mass Destruction," in Battlefield of the Future, ed. Barry R. Schneider and Lawrence E. Grinter, Air War College Studies in National Security, vol. 3 (Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama, 1995), chap. 8.

28. "Bioterrorism: Are We Prepared?" AIBS ActionBioscience Web site, (accessed January 28, 2008).

29. Dana Wilkie, "Biodefense Squeezes U.S. Science Budgets," The Scientist (March 2004): 52-53.

30. Interview with author, January i9, 2006.

31. Interview with author, January i7, 2006.

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