In Greek Fire, Poison Arrows, and Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World, Adrienne Mayor links fleas to the Ark of the Covenant. The bubonic plague outbreak that started in Kaffa has been variously interpreted by Andrew Robertson in "From Asps to Allegations: Biological Warfare in History," Military Medicine, 160 (1995): 369-373; and Eric Croddy in Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Comprehensive Survey for the Concerned Citizen (New York: SpringerVerlag, 2002). This infamous incident, along with similar ventures throughout history, is recounted by Erhard Geissler and John Ellis van Courtland Moon in Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development and the Use from the Middle Ages to 1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999).

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