Chapter

1. The facilities and work at Pingfan are described in Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague Upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation (New York: HarperCollins, 2004), chaps. 3 and 4; Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony (Singapore: Yen Books, 1996), chaps. 2 and 3; Sheldon H. Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932— 1945, and the American Cover-Up (New York: Routledge, 2002), chaps. 4—6; Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman, A Higher Form of Killing (New York: Random House, 1983), chap. 4; Tom Mangold and Jeff Goldberg, Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological Warfare (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1999), chap. 3; and Ed Regis, The Biology of Doom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), chap. 3.

2. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 8; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 11.

3. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 4; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 6; Harris and Paxman, Higher Form of Killing, chap. 4.

4. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 6; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 6.

5. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 6.

6. Robin Clarke, The Silent Weapons (New York: David McKay, 1968), chap. 6.

7. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 4; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 6.

8. Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, chap. 3; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 2.

Notes to Pages 101-108 | 333

9. Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons. Transcripts of the Khabarovsk Trial; testimony of Kawashima Kiyoshi (physician, major general, and chief of the Medical Service of the First Front Headquarters of the Japanese Kwantung Army) (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1950), p. 62.

10. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chaps. 3 and 4; Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, chap. 2; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 3; Mangold and Goldberg, Plague Wars, chap. 3; Regis, Biology of Doom, chap. 8.

11. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 3; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 5.

14. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 8; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 9.

15. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chaps. 3 and 6; Harris, Factories of Death, chaps 5 and 6.

16. Exactly what pathogen Ishii was studying is difficult to determine. He refers to an "epidemic hemorrhagic disease," which would have typically referred to one of the illnesses causes by a Hantavirus (e.g., hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, or HFRS). But these diseases are probably not transmitted by ticks (some Korean research suggested the possibility of rodents' mites as vectors, but current medical opinion does not support such a link). The more likely tick-borne disease would be encephalitis (which is not associated with hemorrhaging).

17. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 6; Harris, Factories of Death, chaps. 6 and 7.

18. Materials on the Trial, testimony of Kawashima Kiyoshi, p. 57.

19. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 6; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 7.

20. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 6; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 8.

22. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 4; Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 8.

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