The role of yellow fever during the Spanish-American and Civil Wars is described by Harvey Schultz, in the chapter "100 Years of Entomology in the Department of Defense," in Insect Potpourri: Adventures in Entomology (Gainesville, Fla.: Sandhill Crane Press, 1992), and by Molly Crosby in The American Plague (New York:
Berkley, 2007). The importance of illness during the U.S. Civil War is powerfully portrayed by Paul Steiner in Disease in the Civil War: Natural Biological Warfare in 1861—1865 (Springfield, 1ll.: Charles C. Thomas, 1968). Gary Miller's 1997 paper, "Historical Natural History: Insects and the Civil War," American Entomologist, 43 (1997): 227—245, is an authoritative account of the importance of insect vectors. For information on malaria and its vectors, see Medical and Veterinary Entomology, edited by Gary Mullen and Lance Durden (New York: Elsevier, 2002).
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