1. Jane Black, "Enlisting Insects in the Military," Business Week, November 5, 2001, available at businessweek.c0m/bwdaily/dnflash/n0v2001/nf2001115_ 8187.htm; Mimi Hall, "Bugs, Weeds, Houseplants Could Join War on Terror," USA Today, May 27, 2003, available at usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-05-27-bugs-cover_x.htm; Faith Lapidus, "Could Insects Be Used as Instruments of Biological Warfare?" January 29, 2003, World News Web site, worldnews-site.com/News/2003/January/2003-01-29-38-Could.html.
2. Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman, A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare (New York: Random House, 2002), chap. 10.
3. U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, Guidelines for Use of Personal Protective Equipment by Law Enforcement Personnel During a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident (2003), Appendix G: "Overview of Chemical Warfare Agents."
4. For example, on March 20, 1995, just before the height of rush hour, an apocalyptic cult called Aleph released sarin into the Tokyo subway system. The attack was poorly conceived and executed, but it still managed to kill a dozen people and injure 5,000; Kyle B. Olson, "Aum Shinrikyo: Once and Future Threat?" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site, cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol5no4/olson.htm (accessed January 25, 2008).
5. Robin Clarke, The Silent Weapons (New York: David McKay, 1968), chap. 9.
6. This enzyme cannot be artificially synthesized but must be extracted from the insect—and there's not much there. Luciferase can be purchased from chemical supply houses at a cost of $50 per milligram (about the weight of a poppy seed), almost 4,000 times the price of gold.
7. Carl-Goran Heden, ed., The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Study of the Historical, Technical, Military, Legal and Political Aspects of CBW, and Possible Disarmament Measures, Vol. VI: Technical Aspects of Early Warning and Verification (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1975).
8. Clarke, Silent Weapons, chap. 9.
9. Tom Paulson, "Bioweapon Fears Spur Peaceful Retraining Effort," Seattle Post-Intelligencer, December 21, 1999, available at seattlepi.nwsource.com/ local/biow2i.shtml.
10. Trudy E. Bell, "Technologies Developed by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to Keep Air, Water, and Food Safe for Astronauts in Space Can Also Help Protect People on Earth from Bioterrorism," NASA Space Research Web site available at spaceresearch.nasa.gov/general_info/ homeplanet_lite.html (accessed January 25, 2008).
12. Kevin Coughlin, "Researchers Leading Attack on Anthrax," Seattle Times, October 14, 2002, available archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis .cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=anthsearchi4&date=2002i0i4.
13. Black, "Enlisting Insects in the Military."
14. Hall, "Bugs, Weeds, Houseplants Could Join War on Terror."
15. Jerry J. Bromenshenk, Colin B. Henderson, and Garon C. Smith, "Biological Systems," Appendix S in Jacqueline MacDonald and J. R. Lockwood (eds.), Alternatives for Landmine Detection (Santa Monica: Rand, 2003); J. J. Bromenshenk, C. B. Henderson, R. A. Seccomb, S. D. Rice, R. T. Etter, S. F. A. Bender, P. J. Rodacy, J. A. Shaw, N. L. Seldomridge, L. H. Spangler, and J. J. Wilson, "Can Honey Bees Assist in Area Reduction and Landmine Detection?" Journal of Mine Action, 7.3 (2003), available at maic.jmu.edu/ journal/7.3/focus/bromenshenk/bromenshenk.htm.
16. Black, "Enlisting Insects in the Military."
17. Bromenshenk et al., "Biological Systems"; Bromenshenk et al., "Can Honey Bees Assist"; Sandia National Laboratories, "University of Montana Researchers Try Training Bees to Find Buried Landmines," sandia.gov/media/ minebees.htm (accessed January 25, 2008).
18. Guy Gugliotta, "The Robot with the Mind of an Eel: Scientists Start to Fuse Tissue and Technology in Machines," Washington Post, April 17, 2001.
Was this article helpful?