1. Daniel Barenblatt, A Plague Upon Humanity: The Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation (New York: HarperCollins, 2004), chap. 5; Robin Clarke, The Silent Weapons (New York: David McKay, 1968), chap. 3; Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), The Problem of Chemical and Biological Warfare: A Study of the Historical, Technical, Military, Legal and Political Aspects of CBW, and Possible Disarmament Measures. Vol. I: The Rise of CB Weapons (New York: Humanities Press, 1975).

2. Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony (Singapore: Yen Books, 1996), part 2.

3. Ed Regis, The Biology of Doom: The History of America's Secret Germ Warfare Project (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), chap. 1.

4. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chaps. 6 and 8; Sheldon H. Harris, Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932—1945, and the American Cover-Up (New York: Routledge, 2002), chap. 6.

6. Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, part 2.

7. Ibid.; Andrew G. Robertson, "From Asps to Allegations: Biological Warfare in History," Military Medicine, 160 (1995): 369-373; SIPRI, Problem ofChemical and Biological Warfare.

8. Harris, Factories of Death, chap. 6.

10. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, p. 135.

11. Harris, Factories of Death, p. 102.

12. Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, p. 215.

13. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 7.

15. Robert Harwood and Maurice James, Entomology in Human and Animal Health (New York: Macmillan, 1979); and Gary Mullen and Lance Durden, eds., Medical and Veterinary Entomology (New York: Elsevier, 2002).

16. Alan Macfarlane, The Savage Wars ofPeace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1997).

17. Barenblatt, Plague Upon Humanity, chap. 7.

18. Sean Murphy, Alastair Hay, and Steven Rose, No Fire, No Thunder: The Threat ofChemical and Biological Weapons (New York: Monthly Review, 1984), chap. 3.

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