Biological and chemical warfare in early times is explored by Adrienne Mayor in Greek Fire, Poison Arrows, and Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World (New York: Overlook Duckworth, 2003). Edward Neufeld's paper, "Insects as Warfare Agents in the Ancient Near East," Orientalia, 49 (1980): 30—57, reconstructs entomological warfare via Jewish and Christian scripture. Overviews of bee-based weapons throughout history include John Free's Bees and Mankind (London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1982) and Robert Sutherland's two-part "The Importance of Bees in War Time," Southeastern Michigan Beekeepers' Association, 13 (2003). A broader coverage of stinging insects can be found in a paper by John Ambrose, "Insects in Warfare," in Army (December 1974): 33-38.
Was this article helpful?