List of illustrations

Colour section between pages 188 and 189.

Full Earth, as seen from Apollo 17 3

Sketches from October I960 for the "Apollo-Control Capsule" 6

President Kennedy announces his lunar challenge to Congress 7

Apollo 14 CSM Kitty Hawk in orbit around the Moon 8

Wernher von Braun beside an early Saturn launch vehicle 9

John Houbolt of Langley, the champion of LOR 10

Computer rendering of the Apollo command module 12

Cutaway of the command module interior 13

Computer rendering of the command module instrument layout 13

Cutaway of the CSM interior 14

Orion, the Apollo 16 LM prior to its descent to the lunar surface 14

Computer rendering of the LM descent stage 15

Computer rendering of the LM ascent stage 16

Diagram of the launch escape system 17

Five F-1 engines at the base of an S-IC first stage 20

Apollo 8's first stage during stacking at Kennedy Space Center 21

Apollo 12's S-IVB stage during transportation on a Super Guppy aircraft 22

Apollo 10's S-II stage about to be stacked as part of the launch vehicle 22

The instrument unit for Apollo 17 during stacking operations 23

CM-012 scorched by the intense heat from its internal conflagration 26

The launch of Apollo 4, the first flight of the Saturn V 28

LM-2 at the National Air and Space Museum, Washington DC 29

Apollo 7's S-IVB and its deployed shroud petals 31

The Florida peninsula, as seen from Apollo 7 31

The Moon's far side, photographed from Apollo 8 32

TV image of the Moon's sunrise terminator from Apollo 8 33

The first image of Earthrise taken by a human 34

Rusty Schweickart's view of David Scott in the CM's open hatch 35

Crater Moltke at 6 kilometres diameter 36

Charlie Brown, the Apollo 10 CSM over 'Mount Marilyn' 36

The Apollo 11 crew during suiting up before their flight 38

Buzz Aldrin deploys a seismometer at Tranquillity Base during Apollo 11 39

Surveyor 3, with the Apollo 12 LM Intrepid beyond 40

Apollo 13's shattered service module 42

The Apollo 13 crew after their recovery from the Pacific Ocean 42

Apollo 14's LM Antares and the landing site at Fra Mauro 43

The Apollo 15 landing site next to the 1.5-km-wide Hadley Rille 45

The TV view along Hadley Rille described as "absolutely unearthly'' 45

Charlie Duke works at the lunar rover during Apollo 16 47

John Young and the lunar rover next to Plum Crater during Apollo 16 47

Apollo 16's CSM Casper and Earthrise 48

Jack Schmitt using a rake to sample lunar stones on Apollo 17 49

Eugene Cernan and Jack Schmitt's split boulder 49

Cernan at the rover during Apollo's final moonwalk 50

The view of Earth as Apollo 17 came around the Moon 50

The Apollo 11 space vehicle leaving the VAB bound for Pad 39A 54

The Apollo 10 space vehicle stands on Pad 39B 55

The mobile service structure near the Apollo 4 space vehicle 56

Apollo 16 on Pad 39A two weeks prior to flight 57

The Apollo 8 CSM as the MSS was withdrawn 59

The main display console of the CM 60

The crew of Apollo 8 on their way to the launch pad 60

The white room at the '320-foot' level against the Apollo 14 CM 61

Tom Stafford and Eugene Cernan wait to enter the Apollo 10 spacecraft 61

Guenter Wendt presents Alan Shepard with a walking stick 62

The geographical layout of an Apollo/Saturn launch pad 64

The F-1 engine 65

Diagram of the F-1 engine 66

Apollo 15 begins its ascent from Pad 39A as the swing arms retract 67

Apollo 11, eight seconds into its flight 68

Its flame twice as long as the rocket, Apollo 16 tilts towards the east 71

Apollo 12's launch tower hit by lightning 73

Apollo 15's S-IC exhaust plume expands in the thinner air 74

Graph of ^-forces during first-stage flight 75

Apollo 11's S-IC stage falls away as the S-II takes over 76

An onboard camera caught the moment an S-IC stage fell away 77

The departure of the interstage ring from the base of the S-II 78

The five J-2 engines at the base of an S-II stage 80

Diagram of the J-2 engine 81

Streaks run across the hatch window of the Apollo 12 spacecraft 82

Diagram of the spacecraft and third stage during the Earth orbit phase 89

The dynamics of falling objects in a thought experiment 91

Freefall becomes an orbit in a thought experiment 92

A freefall thought experiment extends the orbit 93

Diagram showing how a spacecraft raises its orbit by a Hohmann transfer 94

Richard Gordon in an Apollo CM cabin during training for Apollo 12 97

Diagram comparing inertial attitude and orbital rate attitude 102

Diagram of the free-return trajectory 104

Earth, as seen from Apollo 16 after it left for the Moon 112

Apollo 7's S-IVB had no LM but included a target for docking practice 115

Apollo 15's lunar module within the S-IVB 117

Apollo 12's docking target 117

An engineering model of the probe and drogue docking mechanism 118

Propellant being vented from Apollo 14's S-IVB 120

Mike Collins working in the CM tunnel during training 123

Apollo 17's S-IVB after extraction of the LM 124

The lunar crater formed by the impact of Apollo 14's S-IVB 126

Apollo's initial ellipse becomes a flight path to the Moon 130

Diagram of a stone and football thought experiment 131

The state vector of a thrown stone 133

Apollo 17 commander, Eugene Cernan, and the optics panel 136

CMP Jim Lovell sighting through Apollo 8's scanning telescope 138

A display and keyboard, a crew's interface with the computer 142

A schematic of the guidance platform and its supporting gimbals 144

One of the two FDAIs on the Apollo 15 CSM Endeavour 145

One of Ed Pavelka's drawings of Captain REFSMMAT 146

The Apollo star code list 148

A schematic of how a guidance platform can go into gimbal lock 149

Apollo 17's command module 155

An Apollo fuel cell 156

Water and urine dump nozzles on Apollo 10's CM 158

Ron Evans, Apollo 17's CMP, brushing his teeth 160

Michael Collins displays his Moon moustache after Apollo 11 161

Ed Mitchell shaving on Apollo 14 162

Three bearded crewmen on Apollo 15 162

Jack Schmitt tackling a wet shave on Apollo 17 163

A suited Jim Irwin during training showing his drinking tube 169

The Apollo 1 crew 171

Bill Anders's space suit on display at the Science Museum, London 172

Alan Bean's gold visor reflects Pete Conrad who is taking the picture 173

Endeavour, Apollo 15's CSM, in lunar orbit 179

The black-and-white TV camera of a type used on Apollo 11 181

Apollo 11's TV camera mounted upside down on Eagle 182

Apollo 12's troublesome colour TV camera on its tripod on the Moon 183

Apollo 16's remotely-controlled colour TV camera mounted on the rover 184

Comparison of TV coverage on Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 185

Columbia, the Apollo 11 CSM, during processing at KSC 189

The external and internal layout of the service module 190

The PAD for Apollo 15's LOI manoeuvre 198

Diagram of the local vertical/local horizontal frame of reference 200

The Moon's far side, as photographed by Apollo 17's mapping camera 205

Aristarchus, Lansberg, Mons Rumker, crater Kondratyuk and Tsiolkovsky . . 215

'Keyhole' and one of Apollo 8's control points on the Moon's far side 216

The Apennine Bench Formation within Mare Imbrium 219

Pete Conrad and Alan Bean in the LM simulator with the AOT 222

The exterior of the AOT, as seen by Dave Scott during Apollo 9 223

The Apollo 15 landing site showing the crater Index 227

Antares, the Apollo 14 LM, recedes from the CSM Kitty Hawk 233

''The Eagle has wings.'' Apollo 11's LM flies free after undocking 234

The cruciform structure of Intrepid's descent stage 235

Apollo 16's LM Orion and its faulty steerable dish antenna 235

The rendezvous radar antenna on Apollo 9's LM Spider 238

Diagram showing how Program 63 began before PDI 242

Diagram of the programs and phases of the LM's approach trajectory 243

Diagram showing Apollo 12's manoeuvres between DOI and PDI 245

Howard W. Tindall, Head of Mission Planning and Analysis Division 255

The Standing Stones at Calanais, Scotland, an ancient lunar computer 259

The face of the Moon, its major features and the Apollo landing sites 260

Galileo's 1610 drawings of the Moon 261

The Ranger spacecraft 263

Ranger 9's target, the crater Alphonsus 263

The Lunar Orbiter spacecraft 264

Oblique view over the crater Copernicus from Lunar Orbiter 2 264

The Surveyor 3 spacecraft as photographed by the Apollo 12 astronauts 265

The Apollo 15 CSM Endeavour showing its SIM bay 270

The crater Alphonsus as photographed by Apollo 16's mapping camera 271

A frame from Apollo 15's panoramic camera 272

Crater Lichtenberg with its obscured rays 275

Lobate lava flows running across the surface of Mare Imbrium 277

Apollo 17's landing site at Taurus-Littrow 279

Diagram of variation of orbital period with altitude 284

Diagram of basic rendezvous technique 285

The lift-off of Challenger, Apollo 17's LM, from TV coverage 290

Diagram of the direct ascent technique 294

Diagram of the coelliptic sequence rendezvous technique 296

Diagram of the direct or short rendezvous technique 298

Orion, Apollo 16's LM, with disrupted thermal blankets over its rear 301

Docking alignment of the CSM and the LM ascent stage 302

Apollo 17's spacecraft station-keeping 303

Gerry Griffin, Apollo flight director 310

MOCR, the mission operations control room during Apollo 12 311

Mission control at the moment of Apollo 15's lift-off from the Moon 312

The Apollo 17 descent stage left behind at Taurus-Littrow 314

Apollo 15's subsatellite spins into the distance after deployment 319

The PAD for Apollo 11's TEI manoeuvre 320

The Moon's far side from Apollo 15 as it departed for Earth 327

Apollo 16's view of the receding Moon taken by its mapping camera 328

Diagram of the manoeuvres the CMP had to make to reach the SIM bay. . . . 342

Ron Evans returning along the side of the Apollo 17 SM 343

Pierre Mion's recreation of Al Worden's view during his EVA 345

The PAD for Apollo 16's re-entry 352

Diagram showing the orientation of the entry REFSMMAT 356

Diagram of the front panel of the EMS 358

The Apollo 15 CM descends with one of its three main parachutes tangled. . . 373

The moment of Apollo 15's splashdown 374

Apollo 12's CM in its 'Stable II' attitude soon after landing 375

Jack Schmitt exits Apollo 17, helped by a Navy swimmer 376

The Apollo 11 crew sit in the life raft awaiting helicopter pickup 378

One of the Apollo 14 crew winched off the life raft in a 'Billy Pugh' net 378

The Apollo 11 crew exit their helicopter completely enclosed in BIGs 378

The Apollo 12 crew on board the MQF 379

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