Contents

Series Foreword xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xvii

Introduction xix

1. A Brief Overview of the Search for Human Origins 1

The Science of Human Origins and Evolution 1

Scientific Method 2

Forefathers 5

Piltdown 9

Dubois and Beyond 10

Current Issues 13

2. From Fish to Fishermen 17

Evidence for Evolution 17

Biogeography 18

Fossils and Geology 19

Artificial Selection 19

Homology and Analogy 19

Vestigial Traits 21

Embryology 21

Natural Selection 22

Variation 23

Heredity 23

Differential Fitness 24

Adaptation 24

From Mendel to the Modern Synthesis 25

DNA, Chromosomes, Cells, and Inheritance 27

Forces of Evolution 30

Mutation 30

Gene Flow 31

Genetic Drift 31

Selection 31

Sexual Selection 32

Speciation 34

Clarifying Evolution 37

Taxonomy and Classification 38

Primates 41

Monkeys and Apes 44

3. Prehistoric Evidence 47

What Is a Fossil? 47

Geology and Dating Methods 50

Climate Change and Paleoenvironment 54

The Earliest Primates and Fossil Monkeys 55

Fossil Apes 57

Bushes and Trees 61

The Last Common Ancestor 62

Quadrupedal to Bipedal 64

The Earliest Hominins 65

Sahelanthropus 67

Orrorin 69

Ardipithecus 69

Australopiths 70

Australopithecus anamensis 72

Australopithecus afarensis 73

Australopithecus africanus 75

Australopithecus garhi 77

Paranthropus (Robust Australopiths) 78

The Human Genus 80

Homo erectus 82

Archaic Homo Sapiens 86

Neanderthals 88

Stone Tools 90

Anatomically Modern Humans 93

Homo Floresiensis 95

4. Modern Evidence 97

Molecular Clocks 97

Humans and Chimpanzees: The Narrow Divide 99

Mitochondrial Eve and Y-Chromosome

Adam 102

Human Adaptation 105

Sickle Cell Trait 106

Lactose Tolerance 106

Skin Color 107 Ancient DNA and the Neanderthal

Genome 109

5. Interpreting the Evidence 113

Big Brains and Intelligence 113

Evolutionary Psychology 117

Bipedalism 118

Reduced Body Hair 122

Body Size, Shape, and Strength 124

Teeth 126

Tool Use 128

Diet 131

Scavenging and Hunting 133

Fire 136

Reproduction 137

Language 140

Human Revolution 143

Altruism and the Human Colony 146

War or Peace? 148

6. Beyond Human Origins 151

Multiregional and Out of Africa Models 151

Worldwide Dispersal 155

Will We Evolve or Will We Go Extinct? 158

Deep Impact 160

Rewinding and Replaying Evolution 162

Appendix A: Human and Chimpanzee Skeletal Anatomy 165

Appendix B: Geologic Time Scale 167

Appendix C: Recommended Resources 169

Glossary 171

Selected Bibliography 179

Index 185

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