Analytic Techniques and Numerical Analysis

The EB field is sometimes advanced on this. Selecting appropriate increments for computing numerical derivatives is an issue. A crucial part of the numerical analysis is also the use of proper weights and the computation of standard errors of the estimated parameters. The interpretation of the standard errors requires great care if parameters are strongly correlated.

1.5 Selected Bibliography

Utilia et delectabilia (Useful and delightful)

This section is intended to guide the reader to recommended books or articles on variables stars and EBs.

• The Binary Stars by Aitken (1935, first edition) and its revised 1964 version by Jack T. Kent - a classic, and a good source of the physics and mathematics in the treatment of the astrometry and radial velocities in visual double stars studies.

• Properties of Double Stars by Binnendijk (1960) - another classic work, treating also EBs.

• Binary and Multiple Systems of Stars by Batten (1973). A good general introduction to binaries.

• Readers interested in Algol binaries are referred to the book Algols by Batten (1989).

• Interacting Binaries by Sahade & Wood (1978). A treatment of the types of binary stars close enough to each other to affect each other's shape and evolution. The treatment, primarily from a historical point of view, is dated but still of great interest.

• Interacting Binary Stars by Pringle & Wade (1985). An excellent composite treatment by a number of experts in the field treating both the physical states and the evolution of interacting binaries.

• Cataclysmic Variable Stars by Warner (1995). The definitive work on these highly interacting binary stars.

• For the nomenclature and classification of variable stars we refer the reader to the book Light Curves of Variable Stars by Sterken (1997), and in particular to Chap. 1 in this reference. It presents a wealth of typical light and color curves to allow identification, together with a detailed and up-to-date description of each subclass.

• A brief review and phenomenological approach to EBs is provided in Sterken (1997, Chap. 6). This chapter, besides Algol, ft Lyrae, and W UMa systems, also discusses a more special group: The RS Canum Venaticorum-type systems.

• Binary Stars-A Pictorial Atlas by Terrell et al. (1992) contains parameters, light curves, and three-dimensional views of about 335 EBs.

• The textbook Introduction to Close Binary Stars by Hilditch (2001) provides a thorough introduction to binary stars as well as related aspects in stellar astrophysics, stellar structure and evolution, and observational astrophysics.

• Resolving the Algol Paradox and Kopal's Classification of Close Binaries with Evolutionary Implication is an interesting historical write-up by Pustylnik (2005) on one of the greatest contributions of the EB research to astrophysics.

• Astrophysics of Variable Stars by Sterken & Aerts (2006) provides well-prepared review contributions on data sources of variable stars, binary stars and EBs, and also stellar pulsation.

• The proceedings of IAU Symposium No. 240 (2006) under the title Binary Stars as Critical Tools & Tests in Contemporary Astrophysics edited by Hartkopf et al. (2007) provide an excellent overview on state-of-the-art and ongoing activities in close binary research. They review major advances in instrumentations and techniques, new observing techniques and reduction methods and discuss binary stars as critical tools and tests for studying a wide variety of important astrophysical problems.

• Understanding Variable Stars by Percy (2007) provides a basic exposition of variable stars for college students with some background in astronomy and for active amateur astronomers. It discusses both the history of the subject and the properties of each of the variable star groups.

• An Introduction to Close Binary Stars by Hilditch (2001) is a somewhat advanced treatment of binary stars, intended for upper level under-graduate students and graduate students, this book deals with the full range of interacting variables, from X-ray binaries and cataclysmic variables to over-contact systems. It discusses both the structure and the evolution of these objects. Its concluding chapter discusses image reconstruction.

• Although Brightest Diamond in the Night Sky by Holberg (2007) is dedicated to the historical and astronomical importance of the Sirius system, a binary star involving the brightest star in the sky after the Sun and a white dwarf, the compact core of a more massive companion that evolved more quickly than its bright, white companion.

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