M

MACHO, xxxiii, 346 magnetic breaking, 112 magnetic fields, 50, 56 magnetohydrodynamics, 161 magnetometry, 37, 59 magnitude absolute, 208 apparent, 42 bolometric, 207 magnitude-flux relation, 42 mass function, 14, 209 mass loss, 22, 112 mass motions, 56 mass transfer, 138, 161 large scale, 137

nonconservative, 139 mass-luminosity relation, 209 matching approach, 241, 242 matrix inversion, 265 maximum likelihood, 171, 360 mean-free path, 139 meridional circulation, 117 metallicity, 321 method alternating variables, 352 autocorrelation, 12 Bessel, 212 classical Newton, 355 conjugate direction, 355 damped, 354 derivative-based, 352 descent, 354

frequency domain, 266, 295, 296 GauB-Newton, 184, 198, 343, 359, 364, 365-367

GauB-Legendre, 279 generalized reduced gradient, 358 Levenberg-Marquardt, 184, 187, 190, 198, 203, 407 line-search, 353

of multiple subsets, 177, 178, 190 orthogonalization, 362 Powell Direction Set, 192 quasi-Newton, 355, 355, 365 Simplex, 54, 192, 194-196, 198, 278, 279, 343, 352

Simulated Annealing, 306 steepest descent, 192, 354 undamped, 354 variable metric, 355 microlensing, 120, 132, 136 microturbulent velocities, 150, 307, 324 minimum global, 172, 173, 352, 358 local, 172, 172, 173, 198, 199, 352, 358 primary, 42, 65, 84, 92, 112, 176, 200 secondary, 211, 276 model

Binnendijk, 278 Budding, 295 Cherepashchuk, 289-293 ellipsoidal, 23,24,91, 92,95 extended Roche, 102 geometrical, 77 Hadrava, 278 Hill, 279 Linnell, 279-282 Mochnacki, 297

NDE, 89,273,274 physical, 77 rectification, 274 Roche, 95 Russell-Merrill, 89 semi-classical, 291 spherical, 23, 90 versus code, 265 Wilson-Devinney, 282-287 Wood, 92, 95, 277, 277 modes, 286 moment equation, 11 MSC, xxxiii multiple systems, 10

natural level functions, 186, 367 neural networks, 244, 346 nonlinear programming, 356 normal distribution, 369 normal equations, 361 normal points, 179, 189, 281, 292 novae, 22, 101

O'Connell effect, 6, 135, 271, 314, 315, 318 O-C curve, 132, 235 objective function, 351 oblateness, 17, 94 oblateness effect, 17 observables, 75, 170 systemic, 76, 156 occultation, 92, 112, 176, 199, 200, 315 OGLE, xxxiii, 346 optical depth, 116 optimization, 351

constrained, 351, 356 convex, 358 derivative-free, 191 discrete, 351

inequality constrained, 356 inequality nonlinear, 356, 358 unconstrained, 351, 352 optimum global, 352 local, 352 orbital elements, 83, 84 orbital period, 209 orbits absolute, 82 circular, 82 eccentric, 77, 82 edge-on, 14, 83 escape, 141

relative, 82 trajectories, 141 oscillations nonradial, 87,95, 101,102

Pade approximants, 379

parallax, 76, 156, 157

parallax measurements, 11

particle trajectories, 139

passband, 37

penumbra function, 401

penumbral effect, 126

periastron, 83, 86, 92

period change, 178, 235, 238, 242, 257

phase eccentric orbit, 88 geometrical, 83 orbital, 42 photometric, 14, 42 phase shift, 85 photographic plate, 43 photometer multichannel, 181 polarizing, 39 pulse-counting, 39, 41 RADS, xxxiii, 41, 181 two-channel, 39 Walraven, 39 photometric systems Cousins, 38 DDO, 38 Geneva, 38 intermediate-band, 48 Johnson, 38 Johnson-Cousins, 38 narrow-band, 48 Strömgen, 38 transformation, 38 Vilnius, 38 Walraven, 38 Washington, 38 photometry astronomical, 38 background-limited, 38 broadband, 48 CCD, 38, 45, 47 cluster, 47 infrared, 47, 271 photoelectric, 37 photon-limited, 37 synthetic, 281 photomultiplier, 38

plages, 132 Planck function, 119 Planck law, 280 plane-of-sky, 79 coordinates,131 projected distance, 81, 91, 130 planets (individual) Gliese 876b, 248 HAT P-1b, 256 HD 209458b, 247, 256 OGLE-TR-56, 256 TR-113b, 250 TR-132b, 250 TR-56b, 250 WASP-1b, 256 polar gravity acceleration, 391 polarimetry, 57, 57, 58-60, 62, 66 polarization, 75, 76, 144, 152,152, 153-155 circular, 56 circumstellar, 152 fractional, 57 limb, 152 photospheric, 152 sources of, 57 polytropic gas spheres, 77 index, 93, 94 position angle, 37, 57 positive definite, 353 potential, 87, 93 at periastron, 115 centrifugal, 95, 97, 100 effective, 87, 99-101 energy, 77, 95 function, 77 gradient, 77 gravitational, 97 modified Roche, 97 Roche, 95, 96 precession, 29, 235 pressure, 99 prominences, 123 proper motion, 11 proximity effects, 146 pulsating variables, 51, 234 pulse arrival times, 76, 311

radial velocity, 14, 42, 50, 51 amplitude, 147 curve, 51, 52, 54 radiation hydrodynamics, 139 radiation pressure, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108

inner, 105 outer, 106 radiative envelopes, 103 radiative transfer, 379 rapid alternate detection system, 39, 181 rectification, 76, 95, 270 reflection effect, 5, 17, 115, 123, 125, 128, 315, 387, 394, 396, 404

multiple, 124, 127, 321, 394, 395, 404 regularization, 186 Tikhonov, 289 relativistic effects, 132, 235 resolution angular, 12 spatial, 11

spectral, 37, 48, 53, 62, 314, 320 telescopic, 11 time, 41 resolving power, 12 restricted three-body problem, 82, 141 rings, 137

robust estimation, 171, 203

robustness, 203

Roche circular potential, 96 coordinates, 378, 379 geometry, 6, 95 lobes, 5, 19 model, 77, 94, 95, 100 potential, 95 Rossiter effect, 56, 146 rotation, 94

asynchronous, 95, 98, 113

axial, 92

fast, 98

matrices, 80

orbital, 92, 94

stellar, 56

subsynchronous, 98 synchronous, 94 rotation effect, 146 royal road of eclipses, 23, 266 RS CVn-like phenomena, 135 Russian school, 289, 291, 294

Saha equation, 153 SB1, 14 SB2, 14 scattering anisotropic, 57 electron, 58 multiple, 141

Rayleigh, 144, 152 Thomson, 144, 152 scintillation, 180 SED, xxxiii self-eclipse function, 129

sensitivity analysis, 369, 370

sequential quadratic programming, 343, 359

shape relation, 270

SHELLSPEC, 327

shot noise, 37, 180

signal-to-noise ratio, 37, 53

Simpson integration, 281, 394

simultaneous fitting, 182, 278, 311, 315

sky background, 43

Skylab mission, 157

small residual assumption, 188

smooth particle hydrodynamics, 143

solar data, 411, 415

solar prominences, 123

solution light curve, 169, 171 locally optimal, 352 nonunique, 361 optimal, 351, 352 system, 169, 171 unique, 186 sound speed, 140 spectra disentangling, 54 spectral classification, 49 spectral energy distribution, 158 spectral line strength, 146 spectral resolution, 48 spectrophotometry, 39, 48, 54, 59, 60, 62 spectroscopy, 48-50 spectroscopy packages KOREL, 54 REDUCE, 52 SPSYN, 54 VCROSS, 52 spectrum synthesis, 280 spots, 132, 136, 279, 281, 282, 295 accuracy problems, 385 bright, 60, 115 dark, 60

elliptic, 134, 279 latitude, 133 longitude, 133 radius, 133

temperature factor, 133 SQP, xxxiii standard candles, 7, 27 standard deviation, 171 star, 66

age, 22, 47 comparison, 39, 47 composition, 22 irradiated, 125 irradiating, 126 primary, 65, 92 program, 41 reference, 12 standard, 41 star clusters age of, 47

color-magnitude diagram, 47 globular, 47 stars (individual)

P Persei (Algol), 25, 153 P Pictoris, 251 P Lyrae, 6, 113, 137, 146 P Persei, 5 5 Librae, 146 e Aurigae, 15 Z Aurigae, 136 44i Bootis, 131 51 Pegasi, 246 AB Andromedae, 147 AI Phoenicis, 52, 311,320, 321, 337 Algol, 5

AQ Monocerotis, 50

AR Lac, 298

AW Ursae Majoris, 297

AX Monocerotis, 27, 144, 145, 238, 324

BF Aurigae, 124, 176

Centaurus X-3, 347

CX Canis Majoris, 50

DQ Cephei, 137

DQ Velorum, 50

DS Andromedae, 209

DY Herculis, 41

E1114+182, 60

EH Librae, 52

EK Draconis, 60

GP Velorum, 310

GQ Lupi, 249

H235, 311

H235 in NGC 752,315 HD 152270, 144 HD 209458, 247, 250, 254 HD 209458a, 255 HD 77581, 311 HD27130 in the Hyades, 209 HP Dra, 321, 323 HR 6469, 85

HR 8799, 249 HZ Herculis, 124 II Peg, 298 KU Cygni, 27 M71 binaries, 317 NH19 in NGC 5466,314 NH30 in NGC 5466,314 NH31 in NGC 5466,314 OGLE-TR-56a, 257 RT Lacertae, 271,273,298 RW Comae Berenices, 135 RW Persei, 98 RW Tauri, 137 RZ Cassiopeiae, 324 RZ Scuti, 98,112, 144

5 Cancri, 324 SS Lac, 236, 347 SS433, 293

SX Cassiopeiae, 144 SZ Psc, 298 TU Crucis, 50 TU Muscae, 21, 117,288 TV Cassiopeiae, 324 TY Bootis, 23, 176 U Cephei, 139, 324 V356 Sagittarii, 27 V444 Cygni, 136, 137, 289, 292, 293 V536 Sagittarii, 113 V566 Ophiuchi, 297 V664 Cassiopeiae, 124 V728 Herculis, 317, 317 V781 Tau, 347 V836 Cygni, 205 V884 Scorpii, 347 Vega, 251 Vela X-1, 311 VV Orionis, 132, 138, 140 Z Chamaeleontis, 140 stars (types of)

6 Scuti variables, 42 Algols, 113

RS CVn, 59, 135 UX UMa, 101 W Serpentis, 138 W UMa, 112 Wolf-Rayet, 22, 144 Stefan-Boltzmann law, 116, 118, 118, 125 stellar atmospheres, 119, 307, 308-310, 386 evolution, vii, 8, 22, 23, 208, 234 evolutionary models, 246 spectra, 55 surface, 77

surface imaging, 120, 132, 136 tomography, 54 winds, 103, 109, 136, 137, 144 Stokes quantities, 58 stopping criteria, 188, 196, 202 Sun, 120, 132, 157 sunspots, 59 superhumps, 140 surface brightness, 90, 274-278, 282, 384

critical, 19

element, 79

equipotential, 105

gravity acceleration, 116, 118

grid size, 213

inner Lagrangian, 110, 111 limiting, 109 normal vector, 79 of constant density, 99 of constant pressure, 99 outer Lagrangian, 111 stellar, 102 visible, 128 symbols, xxxv, 411

mathematical, xxxv symmetry, 211 exploiting, 211 on the surface, 211 orbital, 211

telescopes

8-m class, 140

automatic photometric, xxxiii, 61, 62 Hubble Space Telescopes, 12 temperature, 77

local effective, 284 mean effective, 118 modified effective, 125 polar effective, 118, 284 termination criteria, 202, 203 thermal contact, 287

278, 288, 289, 327 third light, 91, 128, 131, 132, 214, 232, 233,

235, 274, 275 tidal evolution, 85 time scale, 3 dynamic, 3 nuclear, 3, 137 thermal, 3, 139 times cale hydrostatic, 95

times of minima, 42, 132 transit, 92, 112, 176, 199, 200, 315 triaxial ellipsoids, 92, 94, 95, 381 true longitude, 83 true phase angle, 83

ultraviolet emission, 157 ultraviolet resonance lines, 103 uniqueness, 171, 176, 177, 178, 191, 202 unitary, 363

variable stars, 14, 47

cataclysmic, 9, 21, 101, 112 eruptive, 14 in clusters, 47 magnetic, 59 rotating, 14 variables, 351 eclipsing, 5 eruptive, 8 pulsating, 7 vector angular velocity, 98 line-of-sight, 82

residual, 185 surface normal, 79 transposed, xxxv volume element, 79, 374 von Zeipel theorem, 105, 106, 117, 117, 118

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