Classification of Cosmic Life Forms

It seems that "All living organisms depend on external sources of energy to fuel their chemical reactions" (Purves et al., 1992, 1). We found that the first principle of biology, the Bauer principle corresponds to self-initiated work of the organism; and this work requires energy. We point out that this requirement can be helpful in exploring cosmic life. Within cosmic conditions, in principle, two types of living organisms can exist, both of which must obey the Bauer principle. The difference between them is that a living organism that belongs to the first class is supplying the required energy for internal work W directly from internal energy sources under its own control. A living organism of the second class has its own internal energy sources, but on relatively long timescales, it cannot indefinitely manage without external energy sources. Certainly, living organisms depending on external energy resources need to actively explore their spatial environment; that is, they must have the ability to change their place to obtain the required energy for internal work W. The basic forms of changing place are growth and locomotion, corresponding to plants and animals.

In contrast, living organisms of the first category, which have their own internal energy sources, are not obliged to growth or locomotion, for they can regulate their access to their own internal energy sources. In comparison, a machine with an accumulator does not invest work by its own initiation, since all the work it makes is prescribed in its program which is given to it externally.

Moreover, machines work in a way corresponding to the laws of physics plus the input conditions. Therefore, machines with accumulators do not qualify as living organisms, since they do not fulfill requirements (b1) and (b2).

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