Discussion and Concluding Remarks

The main thesis that we have maintained in this work is that solar activity, space climate and astrobiology should be brought within a unified framework that would include contributions from other disciplines relevant to the past of environments in the solar system. This approach naturally leads us to the suggestion of exploiting instruments and methods from somewhat dissimilar sciences (astronomy and astrobiology) with a unified objective (Messerotti and Chela-Flores, 2007a, b).

We have attempted a preliminary comprehensive discussion of how research in the conditions of the early Sun combine with observations in several disciplines giving insights into the factors that lead to the emergence of life in a given Solar system: biogeochemistry, lunar science, cosmochemistry, chemical evolution, palaeontology, palaeoanthropology, palaeoecology, geochronology and oceanography, amongst others. These considerations are necessary for a holistic approach to understand the conditions that allow life to emerge and evolve elsewhere in the universe.

9. References

Abelson, J. (2007) The birth of oxygen, Bulletin of the American Academy 6, 26-31.

Becker, L., Poreda, R. J., Hunt, A. G., Bunch, T. E. and M. Rampino (2001) Impact event at the Permian-Triassic boundary: Evidence from extraterrestrial noble gases in fullerenes, Science 291, 1530.

Canuto, V. M., Levine, J. S., Augustsson, T. R. and Imhoff, C. L. (1982) UV radiation from the young sun and oxygen and ozone levels in the prebiological palaeoatmosphere, Nature 296, 816-820.

Canuto, V. M., Levine, J. S., Augustsson, T. R., Imhoff, C. L. and Giampapa, M. S. (1983) The young sun and the atmosphere and photochemistry of the early earth, Nature 305, 281-286.

Chela-Flores, J. (1998) First steps in eukaryogenesis: Origin and evolution of chromosome structure, Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 28, 215-225. http://www.ictp.trieste.it/~chelaf/ eukaryogenesis.html

Chela-Flores, J. (2007) Testing the universality of biology, International Journal of Astrobiology 6(3), 241-248.

Cleaves, H. J. and Miller, S. L. (1998) Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation, Proceedings of the National. Academy of Sciences in the United States of America 95, 7260-7263.

Ellis, J. and Schramm, D. N. (1995) Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences United States of America 92, 235-238.

Erwin, D. H. (1994) The Permo-Triassic extinction, Nature 367, 231-235.

Firestone, R., West, A., Kennett, J. P., Becker, L. (2007) New Insights into Younger Dryas Climatic Instability, Mass Extinction, the Clovis People, and Extraterrestrial Impacts, Contribution PP05, Joint Assembly, Acapulco, Mexico, 22-25 May 2007.

Gehrels , N., Laird, C. M., Jackman, C. H., Cannizzo, J. K., Mattson, B. J. and Chen, W. (2003) Ozone depletion from nearby supernovae, The Astrophysical Journal 585, 1169-1176.

Gnos, E., Hofmann, B. A., Al-Kathiri, A., Lorenzetti, S., Eugster, O., Whitehouse, M. J., Villa, I. A., Jull, A. J. T., Eikenberg, J., Spettel, B., Krähenbühl, U., Franchi, I. A. and Greenwood, R.C. (2004) Pinpointing the source of a lunar meteorite: Implications for the evolution of the moon, Science 305, 657-659.

Goswami, J. N. (1991) Solar flare heavy-ion tracks in extraterrestrial objects, in: C. P. Sonett, M. S. Giampapa and M. S. Matthews (eds.) The Sun in Time, The University of Arizona, Tucston, AZ, pp. 426-444.

Grice, K., Cao, C., Love, G. D., Böttcher, M. E., Twitchett, R. J., Grosjean, E., Summons, R. E., Turgeon, S. C., Dunning, W. and Jin, Y. (2005) Photic zone euxinia during the Permian-Triassic superanoxic event, Science 307, 706-709.

Hartmann, D. H. (2005) Astrophysics: Swift progress, Nature 436, 923-925.

Heymann, D., Felipe Chibante, L. P., Brooks, R. R., Wolbach, W. S. and Smalley, R. E. (1994) Fullerenes in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer, Science 265, 645-647.

Jerse, G. (2006) Stima preliminare dei livelli di energia immessi nella Magnetosfera ed Atmosfera terre-stri in diverse epoche da sorgenti di Space Weather, Diploma thesis in Physics, University of Trieste, 181 pp.

Jull, A. J. T. and Burr, G. S. (2006) Accelerator mass spectrometry: Is the future bigger or smaller?,, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 243, 305-325.

Kaiho, K., Kajiwara, Y., Nakano, T., Miura, Y., Kawahata, H., Tazaki, K., Ueshima, M., Chen, Z., Shi, G. R. (2001) End-Permian catastrophe by a bolide impact: Evidence of a gigantic release of sulfur from the mantle, Geology 29, 815-818.

Kaplan, I. R. (1975) Stable isotopes as a guide to biogeochemicalprocesses, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 189, 183-211.

Keller, G. and Stinnesbeck, W. (2000) Ir and the KIT boundary at El Caribe, Guatemala, International Journal of Earth Sciences 88, 844-852.

Kerr, R. A. (2001) Whiff of gas points to impact mass extinction, Science 291, 1469-1470.

Kerridge, J. F. (1975) Solar nitrogen: Evidence for a secular increase in the ratio of nitrogen-15 to nitro-gen-14, Science 188, 162-164.

Kerridge, J. F., Signer, P., Wieler, R., Becker, R.H. and Pepin, R. O. (1991) Long term changes in composition of solar particles implanted in extraterrestrial materials, in: C. P. Sonett, M. S. Giampapa and M. S. Matthews (eds.) The Sun in Time, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, pp. 389-412.

Kirchner, J. W. and Weil, A. (2005) Biodiversity: Fossils make waves, Nature 434, 147-148.

Knie, K., Korschinek, G., Faestermann, T., Dorfi, E. A., Rugel, G., Wallner, A. (2004) 60Fe anomaly in a deep-sea manganese crust and implications for a nearby supernova source, Physical Review Letters 93, 171103-1-171103-4.

Kump, L. R., Pavlov, A. and Arthur, M. A. (2005) Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of oceanic anoxia, Geology 33, 397-400.

Margulis, L., Walker, J. C. G. and Rambler, M. (1976^ Re-assessment of the roles of oxygen and ultraviolet light in Precambrian evolution, Nature 264, 620-624.

Markwardt, C. B., Tueller, J., Skinner, G. K., Gehrels, N., Barthelmy, S. D. and Mushotzky, R. F. (2005) The swift/BAT high-latitude survey: First results, The Astrophysical Journal Letters 633, L77-L80.

Medvedev, M. V. and Melott, A. L. (2007) Do extragalactic cosmic rays induce cycles in fossil diversity?, The Astrophysical Journal 664, 879-889.

Melott, A. L., Lieberman, B., Laird, C., Martin, L., Medvedev, M., Thomas, B., Cannizzo, J., Gehrels, N. and Jackman, C. (2004) Did a gamma-ray burst initiate the late Ordovician mass extinction? International Journal of Astrobiology 3, 55-61.

Messerotti, M. (2004) Space weather and space climate, in: J. Seckbach, J. Chela-Flores, T. Owen. and F. Raulin (eds.) Life in the Universe From the Miller Experiment to the Search for Life on Other Worlds. Series, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 177-180.

Messerotti, M. and Chela-Flores, J. (2007a) Solar activity and solar weather in the framework of life origin and evolution on earth (Invited Paper), in Proceedings of the workshop "Solar Activity: Exploration, Understanding and Prediction", Lund, Sweden, September 19-21, 2005, ESA CD 2007.

Messerotti, M. and Chela-Flores, J. (2007b) Signatures of the ancient sun constraining the early emergence of life on earth, in: J. Lilensten (ed.) Space Weather Research Towards Applications in Europe, Astrophysics and Space Science Library (ASSL) Series, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Vol. 344, pp. 49-59.

Moniot, R. K., Kruse, T. H., Tuniz, C., Savin, W., Hall, G. S., Milazzo, T., Pal, D. and Herzog, G. F. (1983) The Ne-21 production rate in stony meteorites estimatedfrom Be-10 and other radionuclides, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47, 1887.

Ofan, A. Ahmad, I. Greene, J. P. Paul, M., Pellin, M. J. Savina, M. R. (2006) A Search for Live 244Pu in Deep-Sea Sediments: Development of an Efficient Detection, 37th Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, March 13-17.

Oparin, A. I. (1953) Origin of Life, Dover, New York.

Pepin, R. O., Eddy, J. A. and Merrill, R. B. (1981) The ancient sun: fossil record in the earth, moon, and meteorites, in Proceedings of the Conference on the Ancient Sun: Fossil Record in the Earth, Moon, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. Supplement, 13, 581 pp.

Ponnamperuma, C. and Chela-Flores, J. (eds.) (1995) Chemical evolution: The structure and model of the first cell. The Alexander Ivanovich Oparin 100th Anniversary Conference, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Raisbeck, G. M., Yiou, F., Cattani, O. and Jouzel, J. (2006) 10Be evidence for the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal in the EPICA Dome C ice core, Nature 444, 82-84.

Reid, G. C., McAfee, J. R. and Crutzen, P. J. (1978) Effects of intense stratospheric ionization events, Nature (London) 275, 489-492.

Rohde, R.A. and Muller, R.A. (2005) Cycles in fossil diversity, Nature 434, 208-210

Ruderman, M. A. (1974) Possible consequences of nearby supernova explosions for atmospheric ozone and terrestrial life, Science 184, 1079-1081.

Sagan, C. and Chyba, C. (1997) The early faint sun paradox: Organic shielding of ultraviolet-labile greenhouse gases, Science 276, 1217-1221. Scalo, J. and Wheeler, J. C. (2002) Astrophysical and astrobiological implications of gamma-ray burst properties, The Astrophysical Journal 566, 723-737.

Sepkoski, J. (2002) A compendium of fossil marine animal genera, in: D. Jablonski and M. Foote (eds.) Bulletin of American Paleontology no. 363, Paleontological Research Institution, Ithaca, NY.

Thomas, C. H., Jackman, A. L., Melott, C. M., Laird, R. S., Stolarski, N., Gehrels, J. K. Cannizzo and Hogan, D. P. (2005) Terrestrial ozone depletion due to a Milky Way gamma-ray burst, Astrophysical Journal Letters 622, L153-L156.

Thorsett, S. E. (1995) Terrestrial implications of cosmological gamma-ray burst models, The Astrophysical Journal 444, L53-L55.

Tobias, P. V. (2005) Catastrophism and the history of life, Quest 2(1), 24-25.

Tuniz, C., Bird, J. R., Fink, D. and Herzog, G. F. (1998) Accelerator Mass Spectrometry: Ultrasensitive Analysis for Global Science, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 300 pp.

Vanzani, V., Sartori, S. M., Marzari, F., Stievano, B. M. and Tuniz, C. (1987) Modulation of the cos-mogenic nuclide production expectedfrom the galactovertical motion of the solar system, IL Nuovo Cimento C 10, 505-515.

Vockenhuber, C., Feldstein, C., Paul, M., Trubnikov, N., Bichler, M., Golser, R., Kutschera, W., Priller, A., Steier, P. and Winkler, S. (2004) Search for live 182Hf in deep-sea sediments, New Astronomy Reviews 48, 161-164.

Wieler, R., Humbert, F. and Marty, B. (1999) Evidence for a predominantly non-solar origin of nitrogen in the lunar regolith revealed by single grain analyses, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 167, 47-60.

Winkler, S., Ahmad, I., Golser, R., Kutschera, W., Orlandinic, K. A., Paul, M., Priller, A., Steier, P. and Vockenhuber, C. (2004) Anthropogenic 244Pu in the environment, New Astronomy Reviews 48, 151-154.

Xu, D., Dai, Z. G. and Liang, E. W. (2005) Can gamma-ray bursts be used to measure cosmology? A further analysis, The Astrophysical Journal 633, 603-610.

Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know all about the telescopes that can provide a fun and rewarding hobby for you and your family!

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment