Tyler, S.T. and Barghoorn, E.S. (1963). Ambient pyrite grains in Precambrian cherts. Am. J. Sci. 261, 424-432.

Ueno, Y., Isozaki, Y., Yurimoto, H. and Maruyama, S. (2001). Carbon isotopic signatures of individual Archean microfossils (?) from Western Australia. Int. Geol. Rev. 43, 196-212.

Ueno, Y., Yurimoto, H., Yoshioka, H., Komiya, T. and Maruyama, S. (2002). Ion microprobe analysis of graphite from ca. 3.8 Ga metasediments, Isua supracrustal belt, West Greenland: relationship between metamorphism and carbon isotopic composition. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 1257-1268.

Van Kranendonk, M.J. (2006). Volcanic degassing, hydrothermal circulation and the flourishing of early life on Earth: a review of the evidence from c. 3490-3240 Ma rocks of the Pilbara Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Earth-Sci. Rev. 74, 197-240.

Van Kranendonk, M.J. (2007). A review of the evidence for putative Paleoarchean life in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. In M.J. Van Kranendonk, H.R. Smithies and V.C. Bennett (eds.) Earth's Oldest Rocks. Developments in Precambrian Geology, Vol. 15, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Van Kranendonk M.J, Webb G.E. and Kamber B.S. (2003). Geological and trace element evidence for a marine sedimentary environment of deposition and biogenicity of 3.45 Ga stromatolitic carbonates in the Pilbara Craton, and support for a reducing Archean ocean. Geobiology 1, 91-108.

Van Kranendonk, M.J., Smithies, H.R. and Bennett, V.C. (Eds.) (2007). Earth's Oldest Rocks.

Developments in Precambrian Geology, Vol. 15, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Van Zuilen M.A. (2007). Stable isotope ratios as a biomarker on Mars. Space Sci. Rev. DOI: 10.1007/ s11214-007-9268-1.

Van Zuilen, M.A., Lepland, A. and Arhenius, G. (2002). Reassessing the evidence for the earliest traces of life, Nature 418, 627-630. Van Zuilen, M.A., Lepland, A., Teranes, J., Finarelli, J., Wahlen, M. and Arrhenius, G. (2003). Graphite and carbonates in the 3.8 Ga old Isua Supracrustal Belt, southern West Greenland. Precamb. Res. 126, 331-348. Van Zuilen, M.A., Mathew, K., Wopenka, B., Lepland, A., Martt, K. and Arrhenius, G. (2005). Nitrogen and argon isotopic signatures in graphite from the 3.8-Ga-old Isua Supracrustal Belt, Southern West Greenland. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 69, 1241-1252. Van Zuilen, M.A., Chaussidon, M., Rollion-Bard, C. and Marty, B. (2007). Carbonaceous cherts of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa; isotopic, chemical, and structural characteristics of individual microstructures. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 71, 655-669. Wacey, D., Kilburn, M.R., McLoughlin, N., Parnell, J. and Brasier, M.D. (2008a). Using NanoSIMS in the search for early life on Earth: ambient inclusion trails in a c. 3400 Ma sandstone. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 165, 43-53.

Wacey, D., McLoughlin, N., Stoakes, C.A., Kilburn, M.R., Green, O.R. and Brasier, M.D. (2008b) The -3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Chert in the East Strelley greenstone belt - a field and petrographic guide. Western Australia Geologic Survey, Record (in press). Walter, M.R., Buick, R. and Dunlop, J.S.R. (1980). Stromatolites, 3,400-3,500 Myr old from the

North Pole area, Western Australia. Nature 284, 443-445. Walsh, M.M. (1992). Microfossils and possible microfossils from the early Archean Onverwacht

Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa. Precamb. Res. 54, 271-293. Walsh, M.M. and Lowe, D.L. (1985). Filamentous microfossils from the 3,500 Myr-old Onverwacht

Group, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa. Nature 314, 530-532. Walsh, M.M. and Lowe, D.L. (1999). Modes of accumulation of carbonaceous matter in the early Archean: a petrographic and geochemical study of the carbonaceous cherts of the Swaziland Supergroup. In D.R. Lowe and G.R. Byerly (eds.) Geologic Evolution of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Geological Society, America, Special Paper, Vol. 329, Boulder, CO, pp. 167-188.

Weiss, B.P., Kim, S.S., Kirschvink, J.L., Kopp, R.E., Sankaran, M., Kobayashi, A. and Komeili, A. (2004). Magnetic tests for magneosome chains in Martian meteorite ALH84001. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 8281-8284.90 Westall, F. (2005). Life on the early Earth: a sedimentary perspective. Science 308, 366-367. Westall, F. and Folk, R.L. (2003). Exogenous carbonaceous microstructures in Early Archaean cherts and BIFs from the Isua Greenstone Belt: implications for the search for life in ancient rocks. Precamb. Res. 126, 313-330. Westall, F. de Witt, M.J., Dann, J., van der Gaast, S., de Ronde, C. and Gerneke, D. (2001). Early Archean fossil bacteria and biofilms in hydrothermally-influenced sediments from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Precamb. Res. 106, 93-116. Westall, F. de Ronde, C.E.J., Southam, G., Grassineau, N., Colas, M., Cockell, C. and Lammer, H. (2006a). Implications of a 3.472-3.333 Gyr-old subaerial microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa for the UV environmental conditions on the early Earth. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B. 361, 1857-1875.

Westall, F., de Vries, S. T., Nijman, W, Rouchon, V., Orberger, B., Pearson, V., Watson, J., Verchovsky, A., Wright, I., Rouzaud, J-N., Marchesini, D. and Severine, A. (2006b). The 3.446 Ga "Kitty's Gap Chert", an early Archean microbial ecosystem. GSA Special Paper 405, 105-131.

Whitehouse, M.J. and Fedo, C.M. (2007). Search for Earth's earliest life in Southern West Greenland - history, current status, and future prospects. In M.J. Van Kranendonk, H.R. Smithies and V.C. Bennett (eds.) Earth's Oldest Rocks. Developments in Precambrian Geology, Vol. 15, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Wilde, S.A., Valley, J.W., Peck, W.H. & Graham, C.M. (2001). Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago. Nature 409, 175-178.

Wolfram, S. 2002 A New Kind of Science. Wolfram Media Inc., Champaign, Illinois, USA, 1197p.

Biodata of Vera Kolb with co-author Patrick Liesch of the chapter "Models for Silicate Fossils of Organic Materials in The Astrobiological Context"

Vera M. Kolb is Chemistry Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside. She has received her Ph.D. in organic chemistry at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale in 1976. She has received her training in exo-biology from 1992-1994, at the NASA NSCORT Center in San Diego, where she has worked with Leslie Orgel at the Salk Institute, and Stanley Miller, at the University of California San Diego. She has worked in the field of astrobiology ever since. Her recent sabbatical at Northwestern University, with Joe Lambert, was devoted to the study of the sugar organo-silicates, which have many astrobiological applications. At this time she has over 120 publications, including three patents, in the fields of organic reaction mechanisms, medicinal chemistry, and astrobiology. Her main hobby is playing violin.

E-mail: [email protected]

Patrick J. Liesch is currently a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He received a B.S. in Biological Sciences from the University of WisconsinParkside in 2007 while studying the preservation of organic materials via silicification. Patrick's scientific interests are in the areas of organic chemistry, astrobiology, evolutionary biology, entomology, and ethnobotany. In addition, Patrick is an avid outdoorsman and enjoys spending his free time in the North woods.

E-mail: [email protected]

0 0

Post a comment