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Figure 2. The evolution of relative nose size (=N.Q. = Nasalization Quotient, ratio of nose length to body length) over the past 200 million years. Notice the apparent trend in the data as, over time, N.Q. reaches its ultimate value in extant pachyderms. Notice also that once the direct lineage that led to elephants is ignored, most of the species do not have an increasing N.Q. A few do (tapirs, aardvarks, proboscis monkeys) and such exceptions are discussed in "Interpretational Problem #3." This preliminary plot is meant to illustrate a point, and should not be taken as more than a crude representation of a specious trend in N.Q. that has been largely ignored and poorly quantified by paleontologists. (See Poulakakis et al., 2002 and Benton et al., 2005 for more detail.)

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