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Magnetite, 475, 476, 478, 480-482, 484, 485 Magnetosomes, 337-341, 480-482, 484-486 Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), 337-346 Magnetotaxis, 337, 339 Maillard, 72, 75, 78, 79, 81 Makgabeng formation, 186-192, 194, 195 Mammals, 413, 415, 417 Manganese, 28, 32, 34 Manicouagan impact, 420 Manicuoagan Crater, 417 Marine reptiles, 414

Mars, 59-61, 121, 135, 162, 163, 206, 207, 235, 244, 251-253, 269, 270, 300, 303, 308-311, 321, 328, 329, 337, 341, 342-346, 473-475, 477, 480-486, 493-498, 500, 503, 505-508, 518, 519 Martian atmosphere, xx-xxiii Martian carbonates, xxii Martian day, xx Martian dust, xxii Martian fossils, xv, xxiv-xxv Martian meteorite ALH 84001, xxiii Martian meteorites, xxiv Martian microfossils, xxiv

Martian Noachian fossils, xxiv Martian surface, 321 Martian year, xx

Mass extinctions, 395, 398-400, 403-405,

411-420 Mass extinctions, periodic, 412 Material-independent signatures of life, 372 Mat proxy features, 183, 206, 207 Mayr, E., 356, 357 McMurdo Dry Valleys Desert, 325 Melt sheet, 256 Memory, 455, 456, 458, 466 Mesoproterozoic, 94 Metabolism, 343-345 Metal ions, 256, 269 Meteorite, 475-479, 481, 483 Methane, 299-311 Methanogenesis, 300, 310 Methanogenic archaea, 300, 309, 310 Methanogenic bacteria, 300 Methanotroph, 301-304 Methanotrophic bacteria, 304 Microbes, 300, 303, 304, 307 Microbial, 251-253, 259, 261, 266-270 Microbial activity, 266 Microbial biofilms, 266, 268, 270 Microbial biosignatures, 252, 253, 268 Microbial communities, 253, 267-270 Microbial diversity, 145, 148, 150, 151 Microbial filaments, 184 Microbial life, 251, 269, 270 Microbial mat facies, 194, 195 Microbial mats, 163, 165, 168, 169, 175, 176, 183-187, 189-196, 198, 200, 203-206 Microbial preservation, 252 Microbiology, xvi Microcosms, 340, 341, 346 Microfossil(s), 7, 8, 11-20, 27-30, 47, 50-52, 56-60, 121-123, 125, 131-133, 145, 146, 150, 155, 516 Microlife, 382, 383

Microorganisms, 252, 254, 266, 515-517 Microscopic and intermittent life, 382 Microthermometry, 254, 257 Microtube, 47, 52-56, 60 Mineralization, 256, 263, 265, 266, 269, 270 Mineralized, 253, 260, 265-269, 515

Mineralizing environments, 252, 268 Modern hyperthermophilic biofilms, 266, 267

Morphological, 262, 266, 268, 269 Mosasaurs, 414 Multicellular, 121, 122, 126

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