The Moon Without Secrets

Six Apollo missions were able to land on the lunar surface. Apollo 13, because of an oxygen-tank explosion, flew to the Moon but did not make a landing. Through the intelligence and expertise of the astronauts onboard, it was able to return to Earth safely. With the success of these missions, the Moon was no longer unreachable. A dozen men were able to walk on the gray, crunchy lava soil strewn with craters. Each one of these voyages, besides bringing back data, encouraged the development of space science and increased the desire to carry out other missions to different locations of the solar system.«

The Apollo Missions

^^ The Apollo program began in July 1960. An important modern ^ technological triumph, it succeeded in putting the United States ahead in the space race. Six missions made landings: Apollo 11,12,14,15, 16, and 17. The Apollo lunar module was the first spacecraft designed to fly in a vacuum without any aerodynamic capabilities.

An electric vehicle used by the astronauts to explore the surface of the Moon

Television Camera

High-gain Antenna

Low-gain Antenna

TWENTY-ONE CHOSEN

Apollo included seven missions designed to land on the Moon, with a total of 21 astronauts. Six missions completed landings, and 12 astronauts walked on the Moon's surface.

WOT*

740 pounds

15.5 miles

301:51150"

Television' Camera

LUNAR MATERIAL .

The samples of lunar rocks turned out to be similar to those in the Earth's mantle.

Lunar

Communications -Transmission Unit

DIStitiCE TRAVELED

The total distance traveled by the Lunar Rover in the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions

The duration of the Apollo 17 mission, the longest, was almost 302 hours.

Data Console

Storage Locker

HAPPY ENDING

The Apollo-Soyuz mission ended the space race to the Moon.

APOCWMVflSSlONS

1972

SAMPLES

During the last lunar Apollo mission, the Apollo 17, the astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt drove over the Moon in the Lunar Rover and took rock samples from the surface.

1975

APOLLO-SOYUZ

The spacecraft Apollo and the Soviet Soyuz docked in space in the first and historic joint mission between NASA and the Soviet Space Agency. It was the last Apollo mission.

APOLLO 13

The explosion of the liquid-oxygen tank of the service module forced an early return of the crew: James Lovell, Fred Haise, and John Swigert.

space exploration 23

lunar prospector

The Lunar Orbiter consists of a cylinder covered with thousands of photovolt V panels. ^

Launch

January 1998

^^ The Lunar Prospector was launched in r 1997 and was in space for 19 months. It orbited the Moon at an altitude of 62 miles (100 km), traveling at a velocity of 3,400 mph (5,500 km/h), completing an orbit every two hours. This allowed it to obtain data from the surface. Its objective was to attain a low polar orbit of the Moon, which included a mapping of the surface, reconnaissance for the composition and possible deposits of water in the form of ice, and measuring the lunar magnetic and gravitational fields.

105 hours

Antenna used to maintain communications with the Earth.

Weight 650 pounds (295 kg)

Spectrometer searches for potassium, oxygen, uranium, aluminum, silicon, calcium, magnesium, and titanium.

Thrusters -

Organization NASA

ANTENNAS

permit communication with NASA's Deep Space Network

LUNAR POLE

Images taken by the Lunar Prospector

Alpha Particle — Spectrometer de^Hfc particles c mttred by radioactive gases.

Magnetometer looks for magnetic fields near the spacecraft.

Neutron Spectrometer detects neutrons on the lunar surface.

End of the Apollo Program

■ After six landings on the Moon, the Apollo program was terminated. Apollo 18,19, and 20 were canceled for budgetary reasons. The program had put the United States in the lead of the space race.

Sample Collection Bag

James a. Lovell, Jr.

was the backup commander for the Gemini 4 flight and command pilot of Gemini 7 and 12.

APOLLO 13

The pilot of the unfortunate Apollo 13 mission, which was aborted because of an explosion on board the service module

Launch

Width

Velocity

Organization NASA

ANTENNA

High-gain, in the form of an umbrella on the Lunar Rover

Harrison Schmitt

North American geologist who flew on the last Apollo mission

SCIENTIST

The only civilian on the Moon. He traveled on board Apollo 17 and was the first geologist to work on the Moon.

406 pounds

Aleksey Leonov

was born in Siberia. During the Voshkod 2 mission, he was the first person to walk in space.

APOLLO-SOYUZ

Russian cosmonaut Leonov was part of the Apollo-Soyuz test project in which the two craft remained docked for seven days.

77 pounds

lAter missions

1994

clementine

The spacecraft Clementine orbited the Moon and mapped its surface. It was also used to obtain radar data on the unlit craters near the Moon's south pole.

2003 smart

The ESA launched Smart 1, its first unmanned spacecraft, with the Moon as its destination. Its purpose was to analyze unexplored regions and to test new technologies, such as solar ionic propulsion.

2008 LRO

NASA will launch a rocket carrying the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to the south pole of the Moon to look for water that could be used on future missions.

Organization NASA

ITS PARTS

PRIMARY REFLECTORS

provide the desired angular resolution; can point in any direction.

PROFILE VIEW

PASSIVE

THERMAL

RADIATOR

IMAGES

WARM SECTION

Contains:

-Electronic instrumentation -Position and propulsion control -Managing information and command -Battery and power control

STAR TRACKER

PROTECTIVE SHIELD TO PROVIDE THE SPACECRAFT WITH SHADE

419 watts

1,850 pounds

1973 1976 1977 1981 1986 1989

SKYLAB VIKING VOYAGER 1 SPACE SHUTTLE MIR COBE

The launching of the American satellite, AND 2 The first manned mission The first phase of the Russian First results concerning first American space takes photos of the Ply by Jupiter in 1979 was conducted with the space station Mir was the cosmology of the station, Skylab surface of Mars ancj Saturn in 1980. shuttle Columbia. successfully put into orbit. universe.

Observation

WMAP TRAJECTORY

Before heading for point L2, the probe makes a flyby of the Moon to get a gravity boost toward L2.

Day 90 (3 months)

The probe has completed coverage of one half of the sky. Each hour it covers a sector of 22.5s.

■ To be able to observe the heavens, the probe is located at the point called Lagrange L2, which is 900,000 miles (1.5 million km) from the Earth. This point provides a stable orbit far from the influence of the Earth. Sun shields protect its instruments, which always point away from the Sun. WMAP observes the heavens in several stages and measures temperature differences between various regions of the cosmos. Every six month^ it completely covers the entire sky, which makes it possible to compare different maps to check data consistency.

Axial rotation 129 seconds

Lunar Orbit

PLAN VIEW

Orbital Phases

Profession of the equinoxes: 225° around the Sol-WMAP line.

Encounter with the Moon

900,000 MILES

Day 180 (6 months)

The whole sky has been mapped. This is repeated four more times.

Because it can focus on the sky in two directions simultaneously, WMAP is capable of observing a large portion of the sky every day.

The purpose of observing the entire sky every six months is to obtain redundancy in the data gathered over two years. Then the maps can be compared to test their consistency.

Every 24 hours, WMAP observes

30 percent of the sky.

Terrestrial Orbit

£ Regions of greater-than-average temperatures

THE MAP

The details provided by WMAP are unprecedented. The various colors of the regions in the detailed map of the sky correspond to very slight differences in temperature in cosmic background radiation. This radiation, the remains of the Big Bang, was discovered in the 1960s, but only recently has it been possible to describe it in detail. The latest results of WMAP show polarized temperature zones.

MOST RECENT SUCCESSES

In a photograph of March 31, 2006, polarized zones are visible in different areas of the universe.

Temperature difference between two points, measured by WMAP

COBEr the Predecessor

The results obtained by COBE in 1989 set the stage for the future. The resolution is lower, so much less detail is visible.

Regions of below-average temperatures

The oval shape is a projection to show the entire sky.

1990 HUBBLE

One of the most powerful telescopes was put into orbit.

1997

PATHFINDER

The probe released a robot that took photographs on the surface of Mars.

1998

The first module of the International Space Station is launched.

2001 WMAP

WMAP is launched to obtain the most precise data about the universe.

2004 SPIRIT

The robot, together with its twin Opportunity, reached the surface of Mars.

2005 MRO

Launched in 2005, the probe found traces of water on Mars.

Flying Through Space

new discoveries about the origin and structure of the other planets. Beginning in 1981 the space shuttle became a key component in astronautics. Life onboard the shuttle is still difficult, and ith space vehicles that have ever more capabilities, humans have attained many goals in space, such as making

SPACE SHUTTLE

The spacecraft developed by NASA can be reused after satellites have been lifted into space and put into orbit.

DEFYING GRAVITY

THE ROCKETS

30-31

40-41

there are still many problems to be solved. However, the future of the human species over the long term is in space, and there is no choice but to follow that path. Like our ancestors, who immigrated to new regions of the planet to survive and prosper, we have a destiny that will take us away from the Earth to find new places to live. □

Point of Departure

Spacecraft launching sites typically meet one or more optimal criteria. For example, choosing a location close to the Eguator makes it easier to put a spacecraft into orbit. Moreover, a number of coastal areas have been chosen, because they are more accessible for the transport of the goods needed to build the launch vehicles. The danger of an accident during launch must also be taken into account. Therefore, sites have been chosen in areas with low-density population, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida.®

Vehicle Assembly Building

^^ The spaceport has an immense building for the preparation and assembly of rockets and of the external shuttle tank. The dimensions of the building are impressive: 525 feet (160 m) high, 715 feet (218 m) long, and 387 feet (118 m) wide. The orbiter travels on top of the crawler-transporter from this building to the launch pad.

ASSEMBLY BUILDING

ROTATING SERVICE STRUCTURE

ASSEMBLY BUILDING

ROTATING SERVICE STRUCTURE

Fixed Service Structure

This steel giant is located at the launch pad. It consists of fixed and rotating structures. Atop the transport caterpillar, the mobile launch platform brings the space shuttle to this location.

ROTATING SERVICE STRUCTURE protects the shuttle while the contamination-free fuels are being pumped into the tanks.

/. \ 1

The mast protects people, the shuttle, and the other platform components from lightning. It is located in the upper part of the fixed structure and is 348 feet (106 m) tall.

Floating Platform

^^ Earth-based launching platforms are very expensive. For this reason, some countries have developed floating launch platforms. At sea it is much simpler and safer to pick a location at the Equator, where the Earth's rotational velocity is the greatest, an advantage for putting space missions into orbit.

SAN MARCO

FIXED SERVICE STRUCTURE

The structure is 246 feet (75 m) high and divided into 12 floors. It has three arms that connect it to the shuttle.

MOUNTING

A rocket is built on an assembly barge 660 feet (200 m) long.

TRANSFER

The rocket is transferred to the launching platform Odyssey.

PLATFORM

STORAGE

The rocket is stored until launch. The assembly barge leaves the location.

OTHER LAUNCHING BASES

The preference to use locations close to the Equator for spaceports has an explanation. The speed of rotation of the Earth's surface is greatest at the Equator, and vehicles launched near the Equator can take advantage of that speed to help reach orbit.

ORBITER ACCESS ARM

PROPULSION ROCKETS

WHITE ROOM

Exclusively for astronauts. From here they go to the shuttle.

FIRST LAUNCHES FROM THE MOST IMPORTANT BASES

PLESETSK

KOUROU

TAIL SERVICE MAST

These structures connect the platform with the spacecraft. They provide oxygen and hydrogen to the external tanks.

CRAWLER-TRANSPORTER The orbiter sits on top of two caterpillar tracks and is carried to the launch pad. A system of laser rays precisely guide it as it moves at 2 mph (3.2 km/h).

SPACE ROCKET

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