Planetary Landers And Entry Probes

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title www.cambridge.org 9780521820028 A. Ball, J. Garry, R. Lorenz and V. Kerzhanovich 2007 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of...

Previous atmospheresurface vehicles and their payloads

This part of the book provides a basic description, key data and a drawing for all planetary atmospheric or surface vehicles launched, or attempted, from the earliest examples to 2007. Key references concerning the design, payload and results of each craft or mission are given in each case so that the reader may find more detailed information elsewhere. For the payload experiments, the names in parentheses indicate the Principal Investigators (PIs) or otherwise-titled responsible experimenters....

Mars Exploration Rovers

'Follow the water' emerged as the mantra for NASA's Mars programme in the late 1990s. The intent of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions was essentially to act as robotic field geologists, to map the rocks and soils around their landing sites with specific attention to minerals and formations that might indicate the presence or history of liquid water. These rovers were considerably larger than Sojourner. Although loss of solar power due to dust deposition on the arrays was expected to...

Sources of contamination

Spacecraft generally acquire their largest load of contaminating organisms from the personnel involved with the assembly and testing of the spacecraft. The organisms transferred through such forms of contact therefore belong predominantly to the species found on and within people. Human beings are host to around 200 species of microbial organisms, with bacteria the most common skin-borne organisms, followed by fungi and their spores. The most prevalent bacteria types are those associated with...

Luna Ye and YeM landers

Luna Stereo Picture

After 11 previous attempts that ended in launch failure, loss during cruise or landing failure, the first successful landing on the Moon was achieved by 'automatic lunar station' Luna 9 in February 1966. Luna 9 was also the first of the series to be built by 0KB-301, thus being designated a Ye-6M, as opposed to the previous 11 Ye-6 craft. A further Ye-6M became Luna 13, carrying an augmented payload. The landers were 0.58 m diameter pressurised vessels, with a system of four petals that opened...

Penetration dynamics

Vehicles that use their kinetic energy of arrival at a planetary surface to emplace a payload at depth are called penetrators (sometimes called kinetic-energy penetrators or KEPs). In contrast to other landers, the kinetic energy is intended to be dissipated mostly in the surface material rather than the structure of the landing vehicle. While planetary landers reach the surface at speeds of the order of 1-10ms 1 penetrators arrive at speeds ranging from 60-300ms x, depending on factors such as...

Splashdown dynamics Titan landers Earthreturn capsules

Impacts into liquid surfaces are not often considered for spacecraft the applications are the return to Earth of manned or unmanned capsules (e.g. McGehee et. al., 1959 Vaughan, 1961 Stubbs, 1967 Hirano and Miura, 1970), the impact of the Challenger crew module after its disintegration after launch (Wierzbicki and Yue, 1986), and landing on liquid bodies on Titan. A review was published by Seddon and Moatamedi (2006). Although impact with bodies of water is a process with which many of us are...

Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner

The Mars Pathfinder mission began as MESUR Mars Environmental Survey , a 1991 proposal for a network of as many as 16 Mars landers to perform network science meteorology and seismology on distributed sites using nominally inexpensive landers. One prominent approach to reducing the unit cost of the landers was to use a semi-hard landing approach with airbags rather than a retrorocket system. The landing system proposed was sufficiently radical that a technology demonstration flight validation...

Instrumentation

To land from orbit requires the controlled change and therefore the measurement of the spacecraft's dynamical state. During atmospheric entry, deceleration measurements or during descent, pressure measurements can provide Figure 5.3. Slant range versus time during NEAR descent to Eros. The altitude at the start was about 5 km from Dunham et al., 2002 . Figure 5.3. Slant range versus time during NEAR descent to Eros. The altitude at the start was about 5 km from Dunham et al., 2002 . convenient...

Mars Science Laboratory

Currently planned for 2009, the Mars Science Laboratory is a large, long-range rover equipped with a sophisticated and diverse payload. MSL is also due to use a new 'sky crane' landing technique, landing on its own wheels rather than encased in a lander platform. Objectives Biological objectives Determine the nature and inventory of organic carbon compounds Inventory the chemical building blocks of life carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, and sulfur Identify features that may...

Mars Pathfinder

Mars Pathfinder was highly successful, combining technological and scientific goals, and lander and rover elements, to become the first Martian surface mission since the Viking Landers. For more details see the Case Study, Chapter 24 Figures 17.6 and 17.7 . Technological demonstrating the feasibility of low-cost landings on and exploration of the Martian surface Scientific atmospheric entry science, geological characterization of the landing site, meteorology, and long-range and close-up...

Part I

Engineering issues specific to entry probes, landers or penetrators This part of the book is intended to act as a guide to the basic technological principles that are specific to landers, penetrators and atmospheric-entry probes, and to act as a pointer towards more detailed technical works. The chapters of this part aim to give the reader an overview of the problems and solutions associated with each sub-system flight phase, without going into the minutiae. Mission goals and system engineering...

A

Staging of the Pioneer Venus large-probe entry shell and parachute. Entry interface was defined at 200 km altitude, with the main deceleration lasting about 38 s. At about 70 km altitude, a mortar deployed a pilot chute, which removed the aft cover and deployed the main chute. The entry shield is then allowed to fall away, and after 16.5 minutes at 48 km the main parachute was jettisoned, allowing the probe to fall faster. Free descent took another 39 minutes. This descent sequence...

Examples Luna and Apollo

The soft-lander Luna 16, which returned samples of lunar soil to Earth, was placed first into a 110 km circular lunar orbit. It was then put into a 15 X 106 km orbit, with landing approach to be made from perilune. The vehicle simply killed its 1.7 km s 1 orbital speed and then fell vertically. The free-fall was monitored by a radar altimeter, and arrested at an altitude of 600 m 200 m s 1 by another burn. Again, note the low altitude of these manoeuvres to maximize propulsive efficiency. The...

Pioneer Venus probes

Pioneer Venus involved two launches an orbiter and a 'multiprobe bus' spacecraft to carry four entry probes, for release into the Venusian atmosphere prior to the destructive entry of the bus itself. To meet the objectives of both detailed measurements in the atmosphere and multiple measurements at different locations, one large probe and three smaller ones were flown, the Large Probe having seven times the payload capacity of each of the Small Probes Day, North and Night . The bus also carried...

Mars M and M landers

These were the first attempts to soft land on Mars, following the failed 2MV-3 entry probe attempt in 1962 and the landers deleted for mass reasons from the Mars 69 mission. A lander with a Luna 9-style four-petalled opening righting mechanism was encased in crushable material and delivered by parachute and braking rockets from the entry assembly Figure 17.4 . Prime contractor Launch site, vehicle Landing site co-ordinates End s of mission s Soft landing on Mars and investigations of the...

Parachute types

Beagle Parachute

The design of parachutes and related systems is a somewhat arcane science e.g. Knacke, 1992 Murrow and McFall, 1968 of sufficient complexity that empirical testing remains the only trustworthy design tool. Different parachute geometries are available with different inflation performance, drag coefficient, stability, manufacturing cost and so on. The lowest cost type of parachute is the cruciform - this is easily manufactured as two strips of fabric sewn at an orthogonal intersection. These are...

Mars retrorockets in atmosphere

Some additional remarks are appropriate about descent in the Martian atmosphere. Terminal velocity in the thin Martian atmosphere is typically too large to permit soft landing only using a parachute. Even the semi-hard landing of the Mars Pathfinder vehicle used a retro-rocket to null the descent velocity just prior to impact. A scientific concern is that the plume from the descent engines should not deposit fuel contaminants at the landing site, or significantly erode the surface material...