Apollo lunar modules

To date the largest lunar or planetary landers, and the only successfully implemented crewed landers, the Apollo LM delivered twelve astronauts and their

Figure 18.1 Surveyor.

Target Objectives (scientific or otherwise)

Prime contractor Launch site, vehicle

Launch date Arrival date

Landing site co-ordinates1

End of mission

(last data return) Masses

Payload experiments

The Moon

• To accomplish soft landings on the Moon

• To provide basic data in support of the manned Apollo programme

• To perform operations on the lunar surface which contribute new scientific knowledge about the Moon

Hughes Aircraft Company ETR, Atlas-Centaur

Surveyor 1 30/05/1966 02/06/1966

Surveyor 2 20/09/1966 Impacted 23/09/1966 SE of crater Copernicus

Surveyor 3 17/04/1967

Surveyor 4 14/07/1967

Surveyor 5 08/09/1967 11/09/1967

20/04/1967 Impacted 17/07/1967

23.32° W, 1.50° W, 0.43° N 23.20° E, 1.42° N 3.06° S (from in-flight tracking)

Surveyor 6 07/11/1967 10/11/1967

Surveyor 7 07/01/1968 10/01/1968

17/12/1967

14/12/1967

21/02/1968

At injection: 995-1040 kg; at touchdown: 294-306 kg

• Strain gauges (Christensen, Batterson)

• SMSS soil mechanics surface sampler (3, 4, 7) (Shoemaker, Scott)

• Alpha-scattering instrument (5, 6, 7) (alpha-proton spectrometer) (Turkevich)

• Temperature sensors

Delivery architecture Thermal aspects

Power aspects Communications architecture EDL architecture

Landing speed(s) Active operations

(deployments, etc.) Key references

The Project Scientist was Leonard Jaffe Approach direct from translunar trajectory

Passive control via white paint, high IR-emittance thermal finish and polished aluminium. Electronics compartments were equipped with insulating blankets, conductive heat paths, thermal switches and electric heaters Solar array and main battery; auxiliary, non-rechargeable battery carried on Surveyors 1-4 only. Two-way DTE: S-band (2295 MHz downlink, 2113 MHz uplink) via planar array HGA or either of two omni-directional antennas Descent from trans-lunar trajectory. Solid retro motor firing and jettison followed by vernier liquid bipropellant system for final descent. 3-legged landing gear and crushable blocks Actual: 1.4-4.2ms_1 (designed to withstand 4.6 ms-1)

Solar array and HGA articulation, TV camera movement, SMSS and alpha-scattering experiment deployment, restart of propulsion system NASA TR 32-1265, 1968; NASA SP-184, 1969; Le Croissette, 1969; Heiken et al., 1991

1 Inertial co-ordinates from on-surface tracking; inertial co-ordinates from in-flight tracking, and selenographic co-ordinates (Surveyor Project Final Report. NASA TR 32-1265), differ slightly due to random and systematic errors.

equipment to the lunar surface and returned them safely to lunar orbit. Three test missions were flown prior to Apollo 11, and on Apollo 13 the LM acted as a 'lifeboat' for the crew. Apollos 15,16 and 17 carried a Lunar Roving Vehicle to extend the crew's operational range. Also deployed were experiments that would continued operating after the astronauts' departure - acting essentially as independent, though manually deployed, landers in their own right. The initial EASEP (Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package) on Apollo 11 was followed by the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) on subsequent missions. (Figure 18.2)

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