Viking landers

The Viking project, comprising two soft landers and two orbiters, was a massive and ambitious project. The primary mission objectives were to obtain high

Target Objectives Prime Contractor Launch site, vehicle

Launch date 22/01/1968 Arrival date

Landing -site co-ordinates End of Surface mission1 Mass(es)

Payload experiments

The Moon

Land a two-man crew and associated equipment on the Moon, and return them to lunar orbit Grumman

ETR, Saturn V (Saturn IB for Apollo 5)

03/03/196918/05/196916/07/1969 14/11/1969 11/04/1970 31/01/1971 26/07/1971 16/04/1972 07/12/1972

05/02/1971 30/07/1971 21/04/1972 11/12/1972

3.64530 S, 26.13222 N.8.97301 S, 20.19080 N, 17.47136 W 3.63386 E 15.50019 E 30.77168 E

06/02/1971 02/08/1971 24/04/1972 14/12/ 1972

14,696 kg at launch,

Apollo 11: EASEP (laser retroreflector, passive seismometer, dust detector), soil mechanics, solar-wind collector, photography, field geology and sample collection

Apollo 12: ALSEP (passive seismometer, suprathermal ion detector, cold cathode ion gauge, dust detector, magnetometer, solar wind spectrometer, radio science), soil mechanics, solar wind collector, photography, field geology and sample collection

Apollo 14: ALSEP (laser retroreflector, passive seismometer, active seismometer, suprathermal ion detector, charged-particle experiment, cold-cathode ion gauge, dust detector, radio science), soil mechanics, solar-wind collector, magnetometer, photography, field geology and sample collection

Delivery architecture Thermal aspects

Power aspects Communications architecture EDL architecture Landing speed(s) Active operations

(deployments, etc.) Key references

Apollo 15: ALSEP (laser retroreflector, passive seismometer, magnetometer, solar-wind spectrometer, suprathermal ion detector, cold-cathode ion gauge, dust detector, heat flow experiment, radio science), soil mechanics, solar wind collector, magnetometer, photography, field geology and sample collection Apollo 16: ALSEP (passive seismometer, active seismometer, magnetometer, heat-flow experiment, radio science), soil mechanics, solar-wind collector, magnetometer, cosmic-ray detector, far-UV camera/spectroscope, photography, field geology and sample collection. Apollo 17: ALSEP (seismic-profiling experiment, gravimeter, mass spectrometer, ejecta and meteorites experiment, heat-flow experiment, radio science), soil mechanics, cosmic-ray detector, neutron probe, surface electrical properties, gravimeter, photography, field geology and sample collection Separation from CSM in lunar orbit Environmental control system for cabin

Ascent stage: 4 x 400 Ah AgZn batteries Descent stage: 2x296 Ah AgZn batteries 2-way S-band DTE. ALSEP: 2-way S-band DTE

Powered, piloted descent and landing -0.9 ms"1

Many (HGA, astronaut operations, LRV and EASEP/ALSEP deployment, launch of ascent stage)

Apollo Preliminary Science Reports; Heiken et al„ 1991; Kelly, 2001; Cortright, 1975; Beattie, 2001. See also the series of repackaged material in the Apollo 11-17 NASA Mission Reports books, from Apogee Books

1 The ALSEP stations were shut down on 30/09/1977.

Figure 18.2 Apollo LM.

Target Objectives

Prime contractor Launch site, vehicle

Launch date Arrival date Landing site co-ordinates End(s) of mission(s) Masses

Payload experiments

The Moon

Investigations at multiple locations of the lunar surface material and environment; celestial mechanics

NPO Lavochkin (formerly OKB-301) Baikonour, Proton 8K82K/11S824 Luna 1969A Luna 17

19/02/1969 10/11/1970

17/11/1970

09/1971 (total odometry 10.54km) 5700 kg launch 1900 kg landing 756 kg rover

Luna 17/Lunokhod 1:

• Cameras (two TV & four panoramic telephotometers) (Selivanov)

• PrOP odometer/penetrometer (Kemurdzhian)

• RV-2N radiation detector (Chuchkov)

• TL laser retroreflector (Kokurin)

The Project Scientist was Aleksandr P. Vinogradov

Luna 21/Lunokhod 2:

• Cameras (three TV & four panoramic telephotometers) (Selivanov)

• PROP odometer/penetrometer (Kemurdzhian)

Luna 21

08/01/1973

15/01/1973

10/05/1973 (total odometry 37 km) 5700 kg launch 1900 kg landing 836 kg rover

Delivery architecture Thermal aspects

Power aspects Communications architecture EDL architecture Landing speed(s) Active operations

(deployments, etc.) Key references

• RV-2N-LS radiation detector (Chuchkov)

• TL laser retroreflector (Kokurin)

• AF-3L UV/visible astrophotometer (Zvereva?)

• SG-70A magnetometer (Dolginov)

The Project Scientist was Aleksandr P. Vinogradov

Powered descent from lunar orbit

Polonium RHU at rear; air circulation inside main pressurised compartment, with open-cycle water cooling; radiator on upper-surface lid closed during lunar night Solar cells on lid (Si on Lunokhod 1, GaAs on Lunokhod 2); secondary batteries Two-way DTE

Descent engine, retros, 4 landing legs 2ms~1 (Luna 21) Max. 5ms~

Deployment of ramps from descent stage; rover chassis; articulated lid, HGA retroreflector cover, odometer/penetrometer assembly and magnetometer boom (Lunokhod 2 only) Vinogradov, 1971; Barsukov, 1978; Heiken et al., 1991

1 Suggested by Stooke (2005). with the rover now parked some 2 km further North at 38.29°N. 35.19°W.

Figure 18.3 Lunokhod 1.
Beach Cartoon Black And White
Figure 18.4 Lunokhod 2.

Target Objectives Prime contractor Launch site, vehicle

Launch date Arrival date

The Moon

To collect a sample of lunar surface material and bring it to the Earth NPO Lavochkin (formerly OKB-301) Baikonour, Proton 8K82K/11S824

Landing site co-ordinates End(s) of mission(s) -

Mass(es)

Payload experiments

Luna 1969B Luna 15 14/06/1969 13/07/1969 Impacted 21/07/1969

Cosmos 300 23/09/1969

Cosmos 305 22/10/1969

Luna 1970A 06/02/1970

Luna 16

12/09/1970

20/09/1970

Launch: 5667 kg (15); 5725 kg (16, 18, 20) 1880 kg on landing 520 kg ascent stage 35 kg return capsule entry mass

• GZU ground-sampling device

• Return vehicle

• Panoramic telephotometers (stereo pair, with lamps) (Selivanov) The Project Scientist was Aleksandr P. Vinogradov

Luna 18 02/09/1971 Impacted 11/09/1971 3°34'N 56°30'E

Luna 20

14/02/1972

21/02/1972

Delivery architecture

Thermal aspects Power aspects Communications architecture EDL architecture

Landing speed(s) Active operations

(deployments, etc.) Key references

Powered descent from lunar orbit. Vertical launch of ascent stage for direct return to Earth from particular landing longitude avoided the need for trajectory correction. Separation on command from Earth of re-entry capsule from ascent stage

Water cooling of descent-stage instrument compartment

Secondary batteries (AgZn 14 A-hr on return stage; 4.8 A-hr in re-entry capsule)

Two-way DTE for main s/c at 922 and 768 MHz, plus backup at 115 and 183 MHz. Ascent stage: 101.965 MHz and 183.537 MHz only. 121.5 and 114.167 MHz beacon on re-entry capsule.

Descent engine, retros, 4 landing legs. Spherical re-entry capsule 0.5 m diameter, re-entry speed —11 kms-1. Peak load 315 g. Parachute system (1.5 m2 pilot followed by 10 m2 main). System of 2 inflated balloons for capsule orientation after landing

Deployment of drill arm; activation of drill; delivery of sample to return capsule; launch of ascent stage

Vinogradov, 1974; Barsukov & Surkov, 1979; Heiken et al., 1991; Grafov et al., 1971

Figure 18.5 Luna 16, 20.

Target Objectives

Prime contractor Launch site, vehicle

Launch date Arrival date Landing site co-ordinates End(s) of mission(s) Mass(es)

Payload experiments

Delivery architecture

Thermal aspects Power aspects

Communications architecture EDL architecture Landing speed(s)

Active operations (deployments, etc.)

Key references

The Moon

To collect a sample of lunar surface material and bring it to the Earth

NPO Lavochkin (formerly OKB-301)

Baikonour, Proton 8K82K/11S824 or 8K82K/11S824M

Luna 1975A 16/10/1975

Luna 24 09/08/1976 18/08/1976 12° 45' N 62° 12' E

5795 kg launch

514.8kg ascent stage

34 kg return capsule entry mass

• LB-09 upgraded GZU ground sampling device

• Return vehicle

The Project Scientists were Aleksandr P. Vinogradov and

Valerii L. Barsukov Powered descent from lunar orbit. Vertical launch of ascent stage for direct return to Earth from particular landing longitude avoided the need for trajectory correction. Separation on command from Earth of re-entry capsule from ascent stage Water cooling of descent stage instrument compartment Secondary batteries (AgZn 14 A-hr on return stage; 4.8 A-hr in re-entry capsule) Two-way DTE for main s/c at 922 and 768 MHz, plus backup at 115 and 183 MHz. Return stage: 115 and 183 MHz only Descent engine, retros, 4 landing legs 11ms"1 (23) versus max 5ms"1

Deployment of drill; activation of drill; delivery of sample to return capsule; launch of return stage

Barsukov, 1980; Heiken et al., 1991

Figure 18.6 Luna 24.

Target Objectives Prime contractor Launch site, vehicle

Launch date End(s) of mission(s)

Mass(es)

Payload experiments Delivery architecture

Thermal aspects Power aspects Communications architecture EDL architecture

Landing speed(s) Active operations

(deployments, etc.) Key references

The Moon, but only tested in Earth orbit

Test of the LK (T2K type, minus landing gear) in Earth orbit

Yangel

Baikonour, Soyuz 11A511L

Cosmos 379 Cosmos 398 Cosmos 434

24/11/1970 26/02/1971 12/08/1971

Each mission lasted a few days, including orbital manoeuvres to simulate descent, ascent and rendezvous. The spacecraft decayed from orbit in 1983, 1995 and 1981, respectively -5700 kg launch Test flights

Lunar version would have separated from Block D after braking manoeuvre and performed powered descent Unknown Batteries Two-way DTE

The lunar LK had 4 legs with footpads and hold-down thrusters; the T2K lacked the legs and crew ladder and carried other modifications needed for the test flights Unknown

HGA articulation, planned astronaut activities, launch of ascent stage Semenov, 1996; Johnson, 1995; Siddiqi, 2000

Target

Objectives

Prime contractor Launch site, vehicle

Launch date Arrival date Landing site co-ordinates Duration of transmission from surface: Masses (kg)

Payload experiments

Venus

Studies of the Venus atmosphere and surface NPO Lavochkin (formerly OKB-301)

Baikonour, Proton 8K82K/11S824 or 8K82K/11S824M

Venera 9 08/06/1975 22/10/1975 31.01°N, 291.64° E 53 min

Venera 10 14/06/1975 25/10/1975 15.42° N, 291.51° E 65 min

Venera 11 09/09/1978 25/12/1978 14° S 299° E 95 min

Venera 12 12/09/1978 21/12/1978 7° S 294° E 110 min

Venera 13 10/10/1981 01/03/1982 7.5° S, 303.5° E 127 min

Venera 14 04/11/1981 05/03/1982 13° S, 310°E 57 min

Entry: 1560 Landing: 660 Venera 9,10:

• accelerometer (Avduevskii)

• IOV-75 vis/IR photometers (Avduevskii, Marov, Ekonomov, Moshkin??)

• MNV-75 backscatter & multi-angle nephelometers (Marov)

• P-ll mass spectrometer (Istomin)

• Doppler expt (Kerzhanovich)

• Panoramic telephotometers (two, with lamps) (Selivanov)

• ISV-75 anemometer (Avduevskii, Marov)

• Gamma-ray spectrometer (Surkov)

• Densitometer (Surkov)

The Project Scientist was Mikhail Ya. Marov

Venera 11,12:

• Bizon(-M?) accelerometry (Marov, Avduevskii, Cheremukhina)

• Colour panoramic telephotometers (two) (Selivanov)

• Sigma gas chromatograph (German)

• MKh-6411 mass spectrometer (Istomin)

• IOAV scanning spectrophotometer (Moroz, Ekonomov, Moshkin)

• Backscatter nephelometer (Marov)

• Doppler expt (Kerzhanovich)

• Chemical composition of aerosols by XRFS (Surkov)

• Gamma-ray spectrometer (Surkov)

• Groza electrical/acoustic activity expt (Ksanfomaliti)

• PROP-V penetrometer (Kemurdzhian)

• MSB small solar batteries (Lidorenko)

The Project Scientists were Valerii L. Barsukov and Mikhail Ya. Marov Venera 13,14:

• Bizon-M accelerometry (Avduevskii, Cheremukhina)

• TFZL-077 colour panoramic telephotometers (two) (Selivanov)

• Kontrast geochemical indicator (Florenskii)

• IOAV-2 scanning spectrophotometer & UV photometer (Moroz)

• MKh-6411 mass spectrometer (Istomin)

• Sigma-2 gas chromatograph (Miikhin)

• Doppler expt (Kerzhanovich)

• Bora-1 chemical composition of aerosols by XRFS (Surkov)

• GZU drill (Barmin) + Arakhis-2 soil XRFS (Surkov)

• Groza-2 electrical/acoustic activity expt (Ksanfomaliti)

• PrOP-V penetrometer (Kemurdzhian)

• MSB small solar batteries (Lidorenko) The Project Scientist was Valerii L. Barsukov

• Meteocomplex T, P sensors (Linkin, Blamont, Kerzhanovich)

• Sigma-3 gas chromatograph (Mukhin)

• LSA particle size spectrometer (Mukhin)

• IFP aerosol analyser (Mukhin)

• ISAV-A nephelometer/scatterometer (Moroz)

• Malakhit-V mass spectrometer (Surkov, Thomas, Israël)

• ISAV-S UV spectrometer (Bertaux, Moroz)

• GS-15-STsV gamma ray spectrometer (Surkov)

• PrOP-V penetrometer (Kemurdzhian)

• MSB small solar batteries (Lidorenko).

Delivery architecture Thermal aspects

Power aspects Communications architecture EDL architecture

Also VeGa AZ.

The Project Scientist was Valerii L. Barsukov

Separation from flyby s/c on approach

Thermal louvre on entry shell. Pre-cooling to —10° C. Pressure vessel insulated withKG-25 (a high-temperature polyurethane foam) and PTKV-260. lithium nitrate trihydrate thermal accumulator Batteries

One-way VHF relay via orbiter (Venera 9, 10) or flyby s/c (others), data rate to orbiter/flyby

Landing speed(s) Active operations (deployments, etc.)

Key references s/c 256 bits s-1 (9/10) or ~3kbits s"1 (11/12) on each of two channels Entry angles 18-21°; 2.4 m diameter spherical aeroshell; drogue & lead-away parachutes on upper lid; drag parachute; jettison of lower shell; jettison of drag parachute & deployment of main parachute(s); jettison of main parachute(s); final descent using aerodynamic braking disc; toroidal landing gear. Descent duration: ~60.5 min. Entry loads 150-180g.

8ms"1 (9 and 10), 8ms"1 (12), 7.5-7.6 mf' (13 and 14) Ejection of camera covers (9-14), deployment of colour charts (11-14), deployment of densitometer arm (9, 10), deployment of PrOP-V (11-14 and VeGa 1, 2); soil sampling drill operation (11-14, VeGa 1, 2) Keldysh,1979; Hunten et a/,,1983; Marov and Grinspoon, 1998; Cosmic Res. 14(5), 1976; 17(5), 1979; 21(2), 1983; 25(5), 1987; TsUP, 1985; MNTK, 1985

Figure 18.8 Venera 9, 10.
Figure 18.9 Venera 11, 12.
Figure 18.10 Venera 13, 14.
Figure 18.11 VeGa 1, 2.

resolution images of the Martian surface, characterize the structure and composition of the atmosphere and surface, and search for evidence of life. Viking Landers 1 and 2 soft-landed successfully, and during their surface operations lasting over 3 and over 6 years, took hundreds of pictures, made a series of meteorological measurements that has not been rivalled, manipulated the ground with a soil scoop, and analysed the soil: a remarkable achievement for the 1970s. The project required considerable technological investment, particularly in parachute technology and in instrumentation - many Viking developments have yet to be improved upon (Figure 18.12).

Target Objectives

Prime contractor Launch site, vehicle

Launch date Landing date Landing site co-ordinates End(s) of mission(s) Mass(es)

Payload experiments

Mars

Soft land on Mars; search for life; meteorological, environmental and seismological monitoring; compare orbital and surface data Martin Marietta

ETR, Titan IIIE-Centaur D1 (with Viking Orbiters)

Viking Lander 1

(Mutch Memorial Station)

20/08/1975

20/071976

(Chryse Planitia)

13/11/1982

Viking Lander 2

(Soffen Memorial Station)

09/09/1975

03/09/1976

(Utopia Planitia)

11/04/1980

1185 kg entry mass, 663 kg lander wet mass, 612 kg at landing. See Ezell and Ezell (1984) for detailed breakdown

• RPA (retarding potential analyser) (Nier)

• Atmospheric structure (Nier)

• NMS (neutral mass spectrometer) (Nier)

• Facsimile cameras (Mutch)

• 3-axis seismometer (Anderson)

• Magnetic properties (Hargraves), physical properties (Shorthill)

• Radio science (Michael)

91 kg on lander, 9 kg on aeroshell. The Project Scientist was Gerald Soffen

Delivery architecture Thermal aspects

Power aspects

Communications architecture

EDL architecture

Landing speed(s) Active operations (deployments, etc.) Key references

Separation from orbiter 1500 X 32800 km; small hydrazine motors for de-orbit burn

Thermal control was effected by optical coatings, fibrous insulation and a gas bellows-activated thermal switch which conducted waste heat from the RTG into the lander. The RTG was covered with a wind shield to prevent excessive convective cooling. A water circulation loop was used to remove waste heat during prelaunch operations

90 W electrical power from 2 RTGs with NiCd secondary batteries

Two-way 76 cm pointable DTE 2.2 GHz dish, 20 W at 500 bits s- 1 UHF (381 MHz) two-way relay via orbiter, 30 W at 4 and 16 kbit s- 1 through 8-element crossed dipole Incorporated a full IMU guidance package. Entry at 4.42-4.48 km s- 1 (relative), flight path angle -17.6°. 3.54 m diameter, 70° blunt half cone, ablative SLA-561 aeroshell - peak deceleration 8.4 g at 27 km altitude. Further, it performed a lifting entry, flying at a nominal angle of attack of 11°. 16.2 m DGB parachute deployed at 5.9 km by radar altimeter. Parachute jettison at 1.4km and 54ms-1. Throttlable 276-2840N descent engines using hydrazine 2.4 ms-1

Sample acquisition and soil mechanics experiments using robot arm

Ezell and Ezell, 1984; J. Geophys. Res. 82(28), 1977; Mutch, 1978; Martin Marietta, 1976; Kieffer et al., 1993; Burgess, 1978; Corliss, 1975; Holmberg et al., 1980; Cooley and Lewis, 1977

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