The Identification of Bees

For the practical problems of identification of bees to the genus level, it may be easier to use a regional key than to go through the worldwide treatment below, even though many of the keys herein are regional. Identification to species is of course more difficult. Throughout Sections 36 to 121, I have included references to works containing keys or revisions of species. For some taxa and some areas, no such treatments exist. Table 32-1 lists some works containing keys to bee genera of certain areas, keys to species, or catalogues of species. Many other lists of the bees found in particular areas have been published, without keys to facilitate recognition of the genera or species. Nonetheless, such lists are often useful. Many were cited by Michener (1979a).

McGinley's (1987) key to the major groups of bees, based on mature larvae, was part of a key to the families of Hymenoptera. Most bee families were split, with subfamilies and constituent tribes appearing in different places in the key, because in general there are no good larval familial characters. It is thus impossible to present here a key to families based on larval characters. Only the Megachilidae (in reality the Megachilinae) emerged at a single place in McGinley's key. Larvae of that family can usually be recognized by the relatively dense hairs (both setae and spicules) over much of the body, but even this character breaks down, for Macrogalea (of the Allodapini) also has such hairs, and Fidelia and Pararhophites (of the Megachilidae) lack them.

Table 32-1. Some Faunal Works That List or Contain Keys for the Identification of Bees of Certain Regions.

Asterisks (*) indicate works containing keys to genera but no lists or other treatment of species.

Amiet, 1996, 1999, and Amiet, Herrmann, Müller and Neumeyer, 2001, 2004, Swizerland (keys, descriptions, maps).

Ayala, 1990. Jalisco, Mexico. Bingham, 1897. India, Sri Lanka, Burma. *Chiappa, Rojas, and Toro, 1990. Chile. Dalla Torre, 1896. World. *Diniz, 1962. Portugal, Spain. Frey-Gessner, 1899-1912. Europe. Friese (see Schmiedeknecht, below) Gogala, 1999, Slovenia (list of species) Hedicke, 1930. Europe. Hurd, 1979. North America. Ler (ed.), 1993. Oriental Russia. Michener, 1951a. North America. Michener, 1954b. Panama. Michener, 1965b. Australian region.

*Michener, McGinley, and Danforth, 1994. North and Central America. Mitchell, 1960, 1962. Eastern North America. Moczar, 1957-1967. Hungary. Müller, Krebs, and Amiet, 1997. Middle Europe. Ornosa and Ortiz-Sanchez, 2004, revision of Colletidae, Melittidae, and Apidae (s. str.) of Iberian Peninsula, other volumes anticipated. Osychnyuk, Panfilov, and Ponomareva, 1978. European portion of former USSR. Pauly et al., 2001. Madagascar (revision). Rasmont, Ebmer, Banaszak, and Zanden, 1995. Francophone Europe.

Scheuchl, 1996, 1997, 2000, three of a planned six volumes on bees of Germany and Austria, well illustrated, with keys, etc.

Schmiedeknecht, 1882, 1884, plus Friese, 1895, 1896c,

1897a, 1898a, 1901. Europe. Schmiedeknecht, 1930. North and Central Europe. Schwarz, Gusenleitner, Westrich, and Dathe, 1996. Central Europe.

Schwenninger, 1999, species of Stuttgart, Germany. Silveira, Melo, and Almeida, 2002. Brazil (keys to genera and subgenera with lists of species). Smith-Pardo, 2003, Columbia. *Stephen, Bohart, and Torchio, 1969. Northwestern America. Stoeckhert, 1933, 1954. Germany. Viereck, 1916. Connecticut. Westrich, 1984, 1989. Germany. Wu, 1965b. China.

Wu, 2000, treatment of Melittidae and Apidae of China.

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