Tribe Paracolletini

The Paracolletini, in a superficial way, replaces the holarc-tic genus Andrena in the Australian region and in temperate South America. It contains numerous andreni-form bees, some of them with special features relevant to the flowers where they collect pollen. As noted in Section 20, these bees exhibit a series of characters listed as probably ancestral for bees in an old work (Michener, 1944) because of similarity to characters of wasps. Yet the para-colletines are not at all wasplike in appearance and, as indicated in Section 20, colletids are probably a derived group of S-T bees, not a basal group.

This is the most diverse of the tribes of Colletinae. Michener (2000) did not segregate it from the tribe Col-letini, but the distinctive features of the latter now seem to justify tribal segregation. The distinctive features of the Paracolletini, however, are probable plesiomorphies and the tribe is likely to be paraphyletic. As suggested above, a phylogenetic study using numerous taxa is needed. Cal-lomelitta is a very unusual genus and should perhaps be removed from the Paracolletini.

Paracolletini differ from Colletini in the presence of a pygidial plate and pygidial and prepygidial fimbriae, and almost always basitibial plates in females, present also in some males. S7 of the male has a disc to which apodemes and usually the two or four apicolateral lobes, often much reduced, are attached. The posterior surface of the pre-mentum is smooth, convex, sometimes with a longitudinal median groove.

These bees are abundant in Australia and temperate southern South America, ranging north to Misool in Indonesia, to New Guinea, and in the Western Hemisphere, to Arizona, USA.

Stenocolletes Schrottky (1909c), which was originally placed among the colletids and would have to be a para-colletine, may be a protandrenine panurgine (see Sec. 53).

Key to the Genera of Paracolletini of the Western Hemisphere

1. Preoccipital carina strong, often lamella-like; pronotum dorsolaterally with strong transverse carina or lamella extending onto pronotal lobe; hind tibial hairs of female shorter than tibial diameter (neotropical to Arizona) Eulonchopria

—. Preoccipital and pronotal carinae (or lamellae) absent; many hind tibial hairs of female as long as or longer than tibial diameter 2

2(1). Malar space nearly as long as or longer than eye; S8 of male weakly sclerotized, lacking apical process (Fig. 39-

13c) (Ecuador) Lonchorhyncha

—. Malar space little ifany longer than flagellar width, usually virtually absent; S8 of male with strong median apical process 3

3(2). Labial palpi enormous, 8-9 mm long, in repose reaching S3 or S4; claws ofboth sexes deeply cleft, the two rami similar in shape and of almost equal length (Brazil)


—. Labial palpi unremarkable; claws with inner rami shorter than outer and differently shaped, at least in female, or, rarely, claws simple 4

4(3). Forewing with three submarginal cells, second usually about as long as third on posterior margin (but see subgenus Lonchopria s. str.); apical process of S8 of male lacking flat apical region resembling a pygidial plate; inner hind tibial spur of female coarsely palmate-pectinate, bases of teeth close together and diverging from thick part of spur (Fig. 39-8e); tibial scopa (except in subgenus Lonchoprella) extremely dense, hiding tibial surface; hind basitarsus of female weakly concave on outer surface near upper margin, this surface unlike that of tibia in appearance, the surface easily visible among hairs that are usually shorter than those of inner surface (South America) Lonchopria

—. Forewing with two or three submarginal cells, /with three, then second much shorter than third on posterior margin (except in Leioproctus subgenus Cephalocolletes and most specimens ofsubgenus Reedapis); apical process of S8 of male with flat, bare apical region on upper side, superficially resembling a pygidial plate and usually exposed at apex of metasoma; inner hind tibial spur of female ciliate to coarsely pectinate, not at all palmate and not thickened medially; scopa not hiding tibial surface; hind basitarsus of female flat or convex on outer surface, this surface superficially similar to that of tibia, its hairs longer than those of inner surface (ignoring hairs of upper margin) 5

5(4). Stigma small, vein r arising well beyond middle; costal margin of marginal cell 2.5-3.0 times as long as stigma; propodeum almost wholly declivous in profile; volsella of male large, vertically expanded, reaching dorsum of genital capsule, bifid (Fig. 39-1a); mandible of male triden-tate (Fig. 39-1e) [middle and both hind tibial spurs strongly curved and coarsely pectinate (Fig. 39-8d) or outer hind spur of male sometimes dentate or almost simple; forewing with two submarginal cells] (South

America) Brachyglossula

—. Stigma elongate, vein r arising at or slightly beyond middle (Fig. 39-5d-l); costal margin of marginal cell 1.5-2.0 times as long as stigma; propodeum usually with subhorizontal or sloping basal part curving onto steeply declivous posterior surface; volsella of male more or less horizontal, ventral, not attaining dorsum of genital capsule; mandible of male simple or bidentate (tibial spurs not curved and coarsely pectinate, or, i/so, as in some species of subgenus Reedapis, then forewing with three submarginal cells) (South America)

Leioproctus (in part)

Key to the Genera of Paracolletini of the Australian Region

1. Marginal cell with apex on wing margin (Fig. 39-2a); facial fovea linear or nearly so (often very short or absent in male); mandible of female two to three times as long as basal width, ending in three equally conspicuous teeth; pygidial plate of female with lateral margins concave, the apex very slender and parallel-sided (Australia)


—. Marginal cell bent away from wing margin at apex (Figs. 39-5, 39-11), sometimes, as in Leioproctus (Euryglos-sidia), only slightly so; facial fovea broad or absent; mandible of female usually four or more times as long as basal width, bidentate, lower tooth much longer than upper (upper tooth bilobed, giving a tridentate appearance, in Paracolletes); pygidial plate of female with lateral margins not strongly concave, apex neither slender nor parallel-sided (except in a few Leioproctus) 2

2(1). Stigma small, parallel-sided, truncated (in some cases obliquely) at base of vein r or rarely shortly beyond that point, not or scarcely tapering to apex within marginal cell; marginal cell on costal edge ofwing 2.75 to 5.0 times as long as stigma; bare part of labrum uniformly convex, one to five times as broad as long 3

—. Stigma usually larger (Fig. 39-5) and usually not parallel-sided, apex usually tapering to a point on costal edge ofmarginal cell, vein r thus arising near middle ofstigma; marginal cell on costal edge of wing 1.3 to 2.5 times as long as stigma; bare part of labrum usually with transverse ridge or otherwise not uniformly convex, usually more than five times as broad as long 4

3(2). Inner hind tibial spur of female finely serrate, rarely finely pectinate with slender teeth of approximately uniform length arising from a shaft that tapers rather uniformly toward apex (as in Fig. 39-8c); basitibial plate of female and sometimes ofmale fully defined, in some cases visible without removal ofhairs, apex ofplate rounded or blunt (angulate in Paracolletes montanus Rayment); mandible slender near base, usually expanded apically, female with upper apical tooth bidentate in unworn mandibles, mandibular apex of female thus tridentate;

eyes parallel or converging below (Australia)


—. Inner hind tibial spur of female coarsely pectinate, shaft thick near base and narrowing in region where most of teeth arise (Fig. 39-8f); basitibial plate of female defined only along posterior margin, or, at least apex not defined, plate never visible without removal of hairs; basitibial plate of male variable, acutely pointed if defined; mandible approximately parallel-sided, apex bidentate;

eyes often diverging below (Australia) Trichocolletes

4(2). Metasoma with transverse, pale-yellow, integumental bands, broken or narrowed sublaterally, on subapical parts of terga; clypeus yellow in both sexes; scape of male greatly broadened (Australia) Neopasiphae

—. Metasoma without yellow integumental bands, yellowish-brown bands occasionally present but not emarginate or broken sublaterally; clypeus dark in female, rarely yellow in male; scape of male usually unmodified, sometimes thickened but not flat 5

5(4). Basal vein basal to cu-v of forewing; maxillary palpus about as long as width of galea, four-segmented; first recurrent vein received near basal one-third or one-fourth of second submarginal cell (Fig. 39-5b) (Australia)


—. Basal vein meeting or distal to cu-v offorewing (Fig. 395); maxillary palpus much longer than width ofgalea, six-segmented; first recurrent vein received beyond basal one-third of second submarginal cell (Fig. 39-5a, c-f)

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