How to stop cats spraying in the house

Cat Spray No More

Cat Spraying no more is a product that will guide the users on the way to prevent the various mess made by their cats. It is true that a cat that pees in the house can make their home smell like a litter box; it can be upsetting and stressful for the users and can become incredibly expensive if the users are forced to continually clean carpets and floors, or replace furniture. However, Cat Spraying No More is one that will help in the reduction of these problems because it will point the users towards the right things to do and what not to do as regards their cats. This product will stop their cat peeing and spraying outside the litter box for good. This professionally created and proven system will work whether their cat has just started peeing where they should not or if they've been doing it for years. This product is a cheap one that can be learnt by anyone. It comes with certain bonuses that will change the way the users see things as regards cat. They are Cat Training Bible, 101 Recipes for a Healthy Cat, The Cat Care Blueprint, Pet Medical Recorder Software. More here...

Cat Spray No More Summary


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Highly Recommended

The very first point I want to make certain that Cat Spray No More definitely offers the greatest results.

As a whole, this ebook contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Feral Cats

The FWC estimates there are between 6.3 and 9.6 million feral cats (Felis catus) in Florida (at http, which, conservatively, kill millions of small animals in Florida each year (FCIT 2003). Feral cats are generally harmful to native fauna throughout the state, because even cats well-maintained as pets take a high toll of nearby small animals (Churcher and Lawton 1987, Lepcyzk et al. 2003, Woods et al. 2003), especially considering cats continue to hunt and kill when not hungry (Liberg 1984). Globally, feral cats feed heavily on small vertebrates and have led to the extinctions of a number of species (e.g., Burbidge and Manly 2002, Nogales et al. 2003). Feral cats in Florida have been observed to prey on loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtles, roseate tern (Sterna dougallii), least tern (Sterna antillarum), American oystercatcher (Haematopus ullietus), Florida scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), Choctawhatchee beach mouse...

Ng Companion N Technoculture

BECOMING FERAL CATS IN TWENTY-FIRST-CENTURY RURAL SONOMA COUNTY Rusten and I have been in a catless relation to the world since the death five years ago of twenty-one-year-old, former-feral-cat-turned-couch-mistress, Moses, but no more. A bone-thin, feral, gray tabby female had a litter of four near the barn this spring and then, sadly, got run over by a car on Mill Creek Road. We had been supplementing her food for a while by then, and we adopted her five-week-old kittens for the proud job of barn cats. Our cars parked by the old barn regularly became home to enterprising mice, who seemed to be building thriving murine communities in the warm engine All four kittens are flourishing and still very much feral. One of the little black guys (now known to be a male and bearing the name of all-black-clad Spike from Buffy the Vampire Slayer) will let me pick him up and stroke him, but the others are satisfied with service from humans in the form of food and water. They otherwise much prefer...

Why life before dinosaurs

In this book you'll discover some strange animals that lived in the sea half a billion years ago (one looked like a vacuum cleaner with teeth and five eyes). You'll find out about scorpion-like animals bigger than you, insects as big as parrots and spiders as big as cats (it's true ). You'll find out who, or what, your long-lost ancestors looked like, and whether we really did come from slime.

Constraints From Major Elements Of Ocean Island Basalts

Comparison of major-element composition between OIB and experimental partial melts of pyroxenite and peridotite produced at high pressures ( 2 GPa). Larger symbols with solid outline are the pyroxenite partial melts. Experimental data are from the compilation of Kogiso et al. (2004b). Data sources for OIB and MORB are as in Figure 1. (a) Normative plot in the pseudoternary system forsterite (Fo)-Ca-Tschermaks pyroxene (CaTs)-quartz (Qz) projected from diopside Di using the method of O'Hara (1968). The anorthite (An)-Fo join is the boundary between silica-undersaturated compositions (left side) and silica-saturated ones (right side). The enstatite (En)-CaTs join is the garnet-pyroxene thermal divide, which separates Si-deficient compositions (left side) from Si-excess ones (right side). (b) Al2O3 contents plotted against MgO. Figure 4. Comparison of major-element composition between OIB and experimental partial melts of pyroxenite and peridotite produced at high pressures ( 2...

Londons Diluvial or Pleistocene park

The discovery of large animal bones buried a few feet below the ground in central London came as quite a surprise when the foundations for some of the grand buildings around Trafalgar Square were dug out in the late nineteenth century. The same rich seam was uncovered with post Second World War redevelopment of some of the surrounding 'empire' buildings such as New Zealand House, Uganda House and the Royal Bank of Scotland. Identification of the bones revealed an extraordinary bestiary of elephant, rhino, hippo, giant deer, oxen, horse, hyaena and big cats. What were animals normally associated with Africa doing in central London

Young Earth Creationism

Young-Earth creationists (YECs) reject the inference that earlier forms of life are ancestral to later ones. Instead, they embrace the special creation of separate kinds of plants and animals, as stated in Genesis. The definition of kinds is inconsistent among YECs but usually refers to a higher taxonomic level than species. Most YECs accept that God created creatures possessing at least as much genetic variation as occurs within a biological family (for example, the cat family Felidae, the cattle family Bovidae) and then considerable evolution within a kind occurred. The created cat kind thus would have possessed sufficient genetic variability to differentiate into lions, tigers, leopards, pumas, bobcats, and house cats, through the normal microevolutionary processes of mutation and recombination, natural selection, genetic drift, and speciation. Most YECs view the basic body plans of major phyla that appear in the Cambrian explosion as evidence of special creation.

Foreword to the First Edition

Students of human evolution (like hapless skiers attacked by mountain lions) have always held equivocal views about the place that Homo sapiens and its predecessors have occupied in the food chain. And as a result they have tended to straddle or shuttle between extremes when attempting to reconstruct the behaviors and lifestyles of our earliest ancestors. Two diametrically opposed traditions in the artistic representation of early hominid lifeways run right back to the very beginnings of paleoanthropology in the mid-nineteenth century. Some of the many artists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries who specialized in re-creating prehistoric scenes typically depicted small groups of puny and vulnerable early humans huddled nervously around a campfire while big cats circled, awaiting their opportunity to pounce. Others preferred to represent the noble savage, proud and erect and usually armed with a hunting spear or a stone axe (and sometimes with a dog at his heels), striding...

To Kill or Not to Kill

'These creatures are excellent mimics,' Hawk informs us. 'They can sound like almost anything cats, dogs, owls, you name it. Any sound you hear tonight, no matter how normal it may seem, could be a S'quatch.' on our side of the lake has just ALMOST ANYTHING CATS, DOGS, stopped transmitting. Can we OWLS . . . ANY SOUND YOU

Frauds Fakes and surprises

Fake Cat Mummies

Many museums hold collections of animal mummies from ancient Egypt. In an attempt to better understand the methods used and reasons for these mummifications, museums are asking to have their animal mummy collections radiographed. Some of the more common Egyptian animal mummies are those of cats and various birds, including ibis and falcons. During our examination of several animal mummies from the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose, California, the Yale Peabody Museum in New Haven, Connecticut, and Ripley's Entertainment in Orlando, Florida, we discovered evidence of fraudulent practice in the animal mummy industry of ancient Egypt. We radiographed a variety of cat mummies at these and other museums and found that you may not have received what you paid for. We examined several Egyptian wrapped cat mummies that were all about the same height (Mummy Menagerie 2003b). However, although there was certainly a cat within each mummy wrapping, the size of the wrapping did not always...

The Brain And The Chariot

The behavioral as well as neuroanatomical connections between sex, aggression and dominance are borne out in a variety of studies. The mating rituals of great cats and many other animals are barely distinguishable, in their early stages, from fighting. It is a commonplace that domestic cats sometimes purr loudly and perversely while their claws are slowly raking over upholstery or lightly clad human skin. The use of sex to establish and maintain dominance is sometimes evident in human heterosexual and homosexual practices (although it is not, of course, the only element in such practices), as well as in many obscene utterances. Consider the peculiar circumstance that the most common two-word verbal aggression in English, and in many other languages, refers to an act of surpassing physical pleasure the English form probably comes from a Germanic and Middle Dutch verb fok-ken, meaning to strike. This otherwise puzzling usage can be understood as a verbal equivalent of macaque symbolic...

Gentle Savage or Bloodthirsty Brute

Tasty items for cats, dogs, bears, hyenas, raptors, and reptiles. They were bipedal. They communicated by vocalizations. They lived in groups. Their brains got larger over millions of years (although this was not a steady process there were long periods of stasis through much of the early Pleistocene epoch). But how did they act Would we recognize features of ourselves if we got to know them What was your average smallish bipedal hominid really like

Playing With Strangers

Safi was bioanthropologist Barbara Smuts's eighty-pound German shepherd-Belgian sheepdog mix, and Wister was a neighbor's donkey. Meeting in a remote part of Wyoming, dog and donkey lived near each other for five months. Wister was no fool he knew his ancestors were lunch for Safi's ancestors. Around other dogs, Wister took precautions, braying loudly and kicking threateningly. He certainly did not invite them into predator chases for fun. When he first saw Safi, he charged her and kicked. But, Smuts relates, Safi had a long history of befriending critters from cats and ferrets to squirrels, and she set to work on Wister, her first large herbivore buddy, soliciting and inviting, skillfully and repeatedly, until he took the great leap to risk an off-category friendship.

T he G reatest Inventors

In the Egyptian religion, certain animals were sacred cats, for example. Other gods were represented in animal form. The creature we know as the Sphinx, which has a human head on a lion's body, was a very powerful god. Its statue near the pyramids is so vast that a whole temple would fit inside. Buried from time to time by the desert sands, the Sphinx has now been guarding the tombs of the pharaohs for more than five thousand years. Who can say how long it will continue to keep watch empire endured. Just as in the days of King Menes, and for nearly three and a half more centuries, people continued to put mummies into tombs, write in hieroglyphs, and pray to the same gods. They even went on worshipping cats as sacred animals. And if you ask me, I think that in this, at least, the ancient Egyptians were right.

Darwins map of the Galapagos islands with English names now seldom used

The woods and forests of Australia are dominated by trees of a single genus, Eucalyptus, and there are more than 700 species of them, filling a huge range of niches. Once again, Darwin's dictum about finches can be coopted one could almost imagine that one species of eucalypt had been 'taken and modified for different ends'. And, along parallel lines, an even more famous example is the Australian mammal fauna. In Australia there are, or were until recent extinctions possibly caused by the arrival of aboriginal people, the ecological equivalents of wolves, cats, rabbits, moles, shrews, lions, flying squirrels and many others. Yet they are marsupials, quite different from the wolves, cats, rabbits, moles, shrews, lions and flying squirrels with which we are familiar in the rest of the world, the so-called placental mammals. The Australian equivalents are all descended from just a few, or even one, ancestral marsupial species, 'taken and modified for different ends'. This beautiful...

External and internal parasites

Almost all mammals, both wild and domestic, are host to various internal and external parasites. Many of these parasites are harmless, but some may be detrimental to the animal's health. When Europeans first brought out their sheep and cattle, pigs and goats, camels, donkeys, deer, dogs, cats, foxes, rabbits - the full list is formidable - they also unwittingly brought a whole new spectrum of parasites and insect pests. The native marsupials undoubtedly carried parasites of various kinds long before Europeans arrived, but they had much less resistance to the new imports. The diseases that affect the wombat most severely are all caused by parasites originally carried by introduced domestic animals. The cysts of other disease-causing parasites such as coccidia have been found in young wild wombats a major cause of death in hand-reared and captive wombats is toxoplasmosis, in which the animals become infected by accidentally ingesting the microscopic toxoplasma oocysts. These cysts are...

Box Giant Ground Sloth Dung A New Kind Of Data Dump

Shasta Ground Sloth Dung Pictures

Fig. 10.21 The biogeographical history of South America, the land bridge and the Great American Interchange. Maps showing the position of South America in the Early Cretaceous (135 Myr ago), middle Eocene (50 Myr ago) and Early Miocene (20 Myr ago) across the top. Movements of major groups after the formation of the land bridge 3 Myr ago sloths, ant-eaters, caviomorph rodents, armadillos, porcupines, opossums, ground sloths and glyptodonts head north, and cats (including sabre-tooths), squirrels, proboscideans (gomphotheres), deer, peccaries, tapirs, foxes, rabbits and horses head south. The graph (bottom left) shows how northern invaders to South America depressed the diversity of South American groups a little, but mainly added to the overall diversity by insinuation. Abbreviations l, litopterns n, notoungulates. (Based on various sources, including Marshall et al., 1982 Marshall, 1988 and others.)

Geochronology And Biochronology Of The Early Cenozoic

Mammal Phylogeny Novacek

Order NOTORYCTEMORPHIA (marsupial moles) Grandorder DASYUROMORPHIA (marsupial mice and cats, numbats, Tasmanian wolf, Tasmanian devil) Grandorder SYNDACTYLI Order CARNIVORA (carnivores cats, dogs, bears, raccoons, hyenas, weasels, otters, badgers, civets, mongooses, seals, walruses)

Box The Cave Lion Comes To Life

Allodesmus Skeleton

The cytochrome b gene sequence from the cave lions was compared with a range of modern great cats, and the extinct animals turned out to have nearly identical sequences (as expected) and to pair closely with a clade of extant lions, including the four extant subspecies of Panthera leo, the African and Asiatic lions (see illustration). The five subspecies of P leoare then related to P. pardus, the leopard, and then P. tigris, the tiger. The split of the subspecies of P. leo appears to have happened some time after 600,000 years ago, when a single species split into European and African divisions, and then the Asiatic lions branched off some 75,000-200,000 years ago.

The Dead Hand Of Plato

Png People Plan

Darwin knew plenty about animal and plant breeding. He communed with pigeon fanciers and horticulturalists, and he loved dogs.* Not only is the first chapter of On the Origin of Species all about domestic varieties of animals and plants Darwin also wrote a whole book on the subject. The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication has chapters on dogs and cats, horses and asses, pigs, cattle, sheep and goats, rabbits, pigeons (two chapters pigeons were a particular love of Darwin), chickens and various other birds, and plants, including the amazing cabbages. Cabbages are a vegetable affront to essentialism and the immutability of species. The wild cabbage, Brassica oleracea, is an undistinguished plant, vaguely like a weedy version of a domestic cabbage. In just a few centuries, wielding the fine and coarse chisels furnished by the toolbox of selective breeding techniques, horticulturalists have sculpted this rather nondescript plant into vegetables as strikingly different from...

Making a Last Stand Counterattack and Chutzpah

Mobbing is a common primate counterattack strategy. It can be described as several or all individuals of a group gathering around giving alarm cries, approaching, and even rushing or hitting a predator. Mobbing usually is chaotic and confrontational. Snake mobbing has been reported in groups of tamarins, langurs, and lemurs. In addition, the primate literature contains information about langurs mobbing a leopard and gibbons mobbing a tiger. (Talk about chutzpah ) As well, tiny marmosets mob small nocturnal wild cats, and capuchin monkeys mob the weasel-like tayra.46 Mobbing was cited in our survey as employed by primates in 14 of the witnessed encounters with predators. Approximately 8 of the observed primate anti-predator behaviors from our questionnaire respondents were classified as authentic charges or attacks. With their larger size and longer canines, adult male primates in particular will, under certain circumstances, charge and attack raptors, wild cats, wild and domestic...

Valuing Dogs Markets And Commodities

Like a 1950s TV show, companion-animal worlds are all about family. If European and American bourgeois families were among the products of nineteenth-century capital accumulation, the human-animal compan-ionate family is a key indicator for today's lively capital practices. That nineteenth-century family invented middle-class pet keeping, but what a pale shadow of today's doings that was Kin and brand are tied in productive embrace as never before. In 2006, about 69 million U.S. households (63 percent of all households) had pets, giving homes to about 73.9 million dogs, 90.5 million cats, 16.6 million birds, and many other crit-ters.4 As an online report on the pet food and supplies market from MindBranch, Inc., for 2004 stated, In the past, people may have said their pet 'is like a member of the family,' but during 1998-2003 this attitude has strengthened, at least in terms of money spent on food with quality ingredients, toys, supplies, services, and healthcare. 5 The consumer...

Box Giant Horseeating Birds Of The Eocene


These terror birds lived on in South America much longer than elsewhere, possibly feeding on larger prey than did the carnivorous mammals of the day. Some also entered North America in the Pliocene and Pleistocene. They were eventually replaced by predatory cats and dogs.

South American Mammalsa World Apart

Protemnodon Pelvis

South America had its own families of marsupials, some of which mimicked dogs, bears, sabre-toothed cats and others in an uncanny way. The herbivores for most of the Cenozoic were rodents, some as large as deer, or larger (see p. 358), native South American ungulates, including horse-mimics and rhinoceros-mimics, and the armadillos and sloths (edentates). Where did these remarkable mammals come from and what has happened to them now gences with placental shrews, cats, sabre-tooths and dogs. The South American marsupials, the Ameridel-phia, include three clades. The Didelphimorphia, essentially the opossums, are well known from the Upper Cretaceous in North America (e.g. Alphadon Figure 10.13(c-e)) and the Palaeocene of South America (Muizon and Cifelli, 2001). Didelphids survived through the Cenozoic in South America, although they died out in North America in the Miocene. They re-entered North America at the time of the Great American Interchange (see...

Perfect Primate Predators

None of the discussion above obviates the fact that primates are a frequent prey item for many species of wild cats. (The frequency in which primates occur in leopard diets ranges as high as 80 .)36 And, as we've said before, if we want to project what might have happened to our early ancestors, we can look at modern non-human primates that end up as prey for the big cats. Normally opportunistic hunters, the availability of prey or total prey numbers are the important criteria for food selection by cats. In other words, most cats are not searching out a specific kind of food. They hunt and kill what they encounter, and the more prey of one species in their neighborhood, the more likely the cats are to encounter an individual of that species.37 Leopards feed on relatively small prey, such as primates, because they hunt alone and need to carry carcasses into trees to keep their kills from being pirated away by larger cats or pack-hunting dogs and hyenas. Leopards also have a much wider...

Running To Stay In The Same Place

Cheetahs are said to be capable of accelerating from 0 to 60 mph in three seconds, which is right up there with a Ferrari, a Porsche or a Tesla. Lions, too, have formidable acceleration, even better than gazelles, who have more stamina and the ability to jink. Cats generally are built for sprinting, and springing on prey taken unawares dogs, such as the Cape hunting dog or the wolf, for endurance, for wearing down their prey. Gazelles and other antelopes have to cope with both types of predator, and they perhaps have to compromise. Their acceleration is not quite so good as a big cat's, but their endurance is better. By jinking, a Tommy can sometimes throw a cheetah off its stride, thereby postponing matters until the cheetah has gone beyond its maximum acceleration phase into the exhausted phase, where its poor stamina starts to count. Successful cheetah hunts usually end soon after they start, the cheetah relying on surprise and acceleration. Unsuccessful cheetah hunts also end...

Clovis hunters and Monte Verde

The artefacts found at the Yana site include spear foreshafts fashioned from mammoth ivory and rhino horn, which are remarkably similar to those ivory foreshafts made by the American Clovis people over 15,000 years later. Foreshafts allowed hunters to replace broken spear points quickly and reuse the spears. However, the woolly rhino became extinct around 17,000 years ago and did not colonise the Americas, and so the Clovis people had no option but to use the more brittle mammoth ivory. Problematically, there are also stone tools that do not bear any resemblance to Clovis ones, so there remain big questions as to the possible direct connections between these Yana River Siberians and the Clovis people. The debris of animal bones (some 800) found at the Yana site includes the remains of mammoth, bison, reindeer, horse, large lion-like predatory cats and plant fossils, which all point to a cool, dry steppe climate with grasses, and stands of larch and birch. But this was before the...

The Diseases By Organ System

Three) cats surveyed in the study area had high parvovirus titres (1 250 to 1 10240). Positive titres to all viruses in all sampled dogs suggested that these pathogens were endemic. An outbreak of distemper that affected giant pandas and red pandas at one Chinese zoo has been described in the literature (Qiu & Mainka, 1993).

Methods For Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

Effective endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract requires proper patient preparation. The presence of ingesta and faecal material can inhibit entry into the oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and colon, contribute to damaged tissue or instrumentation and prevent clear visualisation of luminal surfaces. For companion animals (dogs and cats), a minimal 24-hour fast is accompanied by administering an enteric cleansing solution (i.e. Golytely Braintree Laboratories, Braintree, MA oral dose, 30 ml kg-1 divided over a 24-hour period) (Willard, 2001 Zoran, 2001).

Giving birth to convergence

Song, the birth of live young, and warm-bloodedness, not to mention that honorary mammal, the New Zealand kiwi, all provide compelling examples of convergence that show how features we associate with the mammals are more widespread and may, therefore, reasonably be expected to emerge elsewhere. Nor do the examples end here. Mammalian dentition is well known for its complexity. Earlier, we encountered the convergent evolution of the massive canines in the sabre-toothed cats and marsupial thylacosmilids. In addition to the canines, most mammals have nibbling teeth (incisors) and the familiar battery of molars for grinding or shearing.181 That this dentition makes sophisticated food processing possible has no doubt contributed to the evolutionary success of the mammals. In contrast, the dentition of the reptiles is much simpler. Typically it consists of a sharp array of pointed teeth, and if there is any difference along the length of the jaw it is usually only one of relative size....

And Say The Philosopher Responded When Animals Look Back

And Say the Animal Responded is the title Derrida gave his 1997 lecture in which he tracked the old philosophical scandal of judging the animal to be capable only of reaction as an animal-machine. That's a wonderful title and a crucial question. I think Derrida accomplished important work in that lecture and the published essay that followed, but something that was oddly missing became clearer in another lecture in the same series, translated into English as The Animal That Therefore I Am (More to Follow). 25 He understood that actual animals look back at actual human beings he wrote at length about a cat, his small female cat, in a particular bathroom on a real morning actually looking at him. The cat I am talking about is a real cat, truly, believe me, a little cat. It isn't the figure of a cat. It doesn't silently enter the room as an allegory for all the cats on the earth, the felines that traverse myths and religions, literatures and fables (374). Further, Derrida knew he was in...

When Species Meet

And so in the chapters to follow, readers will meet cloned dogs, databased tigers, a baseball writer on crutches, a health and genetics activist in Fresno, wolves and dogs in Syria and the French Alps, Chicken Little and Bush legs in Moldavia, tsetse flies and guinea pigs in a Zimbabwean lab in a young adult novel, feral cats, whales wearing cameras, felons and pooches in training in prison, and a talented dog and middle-aged woman playing a sport together in California. All of these are figures, and all are mundanely here, on this earth, now, asking who we will become when species meet.

Attacking convergence

Marlene Hill Donnelly

Let me give you another example, again from the world of attack and mayhem. This is in the form of the independent evolution of dagger-like canines in both placental cats (the sabre-tooth felids)120 and a group of South American marsupials known as the thylacos-milids (Figure 6.5).121 In fact, the evidence suggests that even within the placental felids the sabre-tooth habit evolved several times.122 The dinosaur enthusiast Bob Bakker has also suggested that an analogy to these sabre-toothed mammals can be found in the allosaurids of the Jurassic.123 Although as a group the marsupials, best known in the guise of the kangaroo and wombat, tend to be regarded in some generalized sense as inferior to the placentals, this is too simplistic.124 So, too, the rich, but now largely extinct, diversity of South American marsupials is widely regarded as having been competitively inferior to the onslaught of the placental mammals that surged south when the linkage to North America was secured via...

Evolution Of Animal Color Patterns

Pigmentation Gene Evolution

The factors that favor the spread of melanic forms of these cats are not clear. There is compelling field data to suggest that melanism involving the MC1R gene underlies adaptation in other species. For example, rock pocket mice are generally light-colored and live on light-colored rocks. However, in the American Southwest, populations of melanic mice are found that live on dark lava formations (Fig. 7.2) and field studies suggest that the dark coloration provides protection from predators such as owls. In an Arizona population, four amino acid replacements were found in the MC1R gene that showed a perfect association with dark coloration. Furthermore, a pattern of reduced nucleotide variation in the MC1R alleles of the

Other occupants of burrows

Other animals that have been reported in bare-nosed wombat burrows include echidnas, brushtail possums and cats. Rabbits have also been found in southerns' burrows, as well as geckos and stumpy-tailed lizards. The burrows of the northerns also have other occasional inhabitants, including dingoes, cats, echidnas, rufous bettongs and swamp wallabies. Goannas and pythons have also been found in wombat burrows.

Mammals finally arrive

Many changes occurred to the mammal-like reptiles before they eventually evolved into true mammals. But what made the first true mammals different Mammals have larger brains than snakes and lizards, and give birth to live young (except for echidnas and platypuses, which lay eggs). What really makes cats, rats, you and me different from therapsids, lizards and snakes (apart from not usually being especially slithery and scaly) is that we are far more active and create our own high body temperature. We don't need to wear a solar panel on our back. We just need to eat a lot more food, in fact about ten times as much as a reptile of the same size.

Box The Largest Rodent Ever


Phoberomys was probably semi-aquatic, like the capybara, and foraged for reeds and other tough aquatic plants along the river bed. Phoberomys lived in a lush, warm habitat, in rivers that teemed with crocodiles, catfish and enormous turtles. With its vast bulk and shortish forelimbs, Phoberomys and other giant rodents probably could not move very fast. Predators included crocodiles up to 10m long, the flesh-eating flightless bird Phorusrhacos (see p. 281) and large marsupial 'cats' (see p. 316). Phoberomys probably could not flee from these predators, nor could it squeeze into a small hole in the river bank. This vulnerability to predation, together with cooling climates in the late Miocene, may have contributed to the demise of the truly giant South American rodents.

Functional morphology

The first question that people ask about any fossil vertebrate is 'what did it do ' Just how did the heavily armoured Devonian fishes manage to swim Why did some mammal-like reptiles have massively thick skull roofs What did Stegosaurus use its back plates for Why did sabre-toothed cats have such massive fangs

Carnivora And Pholidota

Hesperocyon Teeth

The living meat-eaters, cats, dogs, hyaenas, weasels and seals are members of the Order Carnivora. These animals are characterized by the possession of a pair of carnassial teeth on each side of the jaws the upper premolar 4 and the lower molar 1 are enlarged as longitudinal blades that shear across each other like a powerful pair of scissor blades (Figure 10.38(a,b)). Certain forms that crush bones, such as the hyaenas, have broad premolars with thick enamel and powerful jaw adductors. Bone-crushing dogs have broad molars. The canine teeth are generally long and used in puncturing the skin of prey animals, whereas carnivores use their incisors for grasping and tearing flesh, as well as for grooming. It has usually been assumed that the modern carnivores are related to certain creodonts (see p. 333), but the exact origins of modern cats, dogs, bears and seals The modern groups began to diverge in the late Eocene and early Oligocene. The feliforms include the cats, civets, mongooses,...

Pleistocene extinctions

One of the biggest questions that has emerged from our investigation of Pleistocene time is whether it was climate change or human intervention that wiped out the magnificent beasts of the Ice Ages. The mammoth, woolly rhino, giant cave bears, giant deer, sabre-tooth cats and herds of wild horse, cattle, bison and reindeer that covered the Americas and Eurasia and were so evocatively figured by our ancestors in cave paintings, rock drawings and portable carvings have mostly disappeared, but what caused their demise Did they just fall by To begin with, the primary suspect was actually climate change. The idea was that drastic changes in vegetation had a major effect on the large numbers of plant eaters, which were dependent on fairly specific food types such as the grasses on which the mammoths, horse, cattle and bison depended. With warmer and wetter climates at the end of the last glacial, the vaste cold steppe grasslands were gradually overgrown by encroaching scrub, herbs and...

Results And Discussion

Rearing domestic carnivores in socially deprived conditions also results in sexual behaviour deficiencies. Female domestic cats hand-reared and isolated from conspecifics show fewer courtship, amicable and copulatory behaviours than mother-nurtured females or those reared with siblings (Mellen, 1989, 1992). Additionally, female kittens that grow up with siblings are more sexually competent than females reared in isolation but less competent than mother-reared counterparts. Male dogs developed in isolation have sexual behaviour deficiencies unlike males raised in groups or with limited peer contact (Beach, 1968). Similar findings occur in the domestic cat. Kuo (1960) found that kittens raised with rats and in isolation from conspecifics were hyperaggressive toward conspecifics later in life. Age of separation from the mother affects the development of antagonistic behaviour. Seitz (1959) reared kittens in isolation after removing them from their mothers and littermates at 2, 6 or 12...

Ascending the tree of life

There is a hierarchy of classification. Species are grouped into a genus, followed by successive groupings into order, class, phylum ( file-um ), and kingdom. For example, the domestic cat (all varieties) is classified as follows species Catus (domestic cat) genus Felis (wild and domestic cats) family Felidae (all cats) order Carnivora (carnivores) class Mammalia (mammals) phylum Chordata kingdom, Animalia. The phylum specifies a characteristic body plan.

Diplomacy in the Time of the Plague

The work was based on vague contemporary ideas of infection. They kept the sick isolated, limited social contact between people and exterminated the sources of infection. This opened the way for a conflict between faith and science even at the local level. Churchmen in villages believed that the best thing to do was to bring the local image of the Virgin Mary out of the church and organise a great procession for the villagers and the people of the surrounding countryside. The publicly appointed plague officers regarded this as a dangerous spread of infection. They in their turn suggested initiatives such as killing the village dogs and cats, which were suspected of spreading the disease in some way. Such conflicts had no clear moral victor. The religious processions did not really do much harm, as the plague rarely spreads directly between people. Slaughtering cats and dogs, on the other hand, was decidedly unfortunate. It led to a boom in the rat population, which in its turn enabled...

Figure Family Tree Of Humans And Other Great Apes

Each sex had its own hierarchy, with the females subservient to the males. The males spent their day, when they weren't fighting, building alliances with other males and trying to work their way up the male hierarchy of their community. The risks of being alpha male were considerable, but the payoff considerable, at least in Darwinian terms the alpha male and his allies got to father most of the community's offspring. So consider this population of 100,000 chimplike apes somewhere in the eastern side of equatorial Africa 5 million years ago. Times are tough and their forest homeland is shrinking. The trees no longer carry enough fruit. The apes are forced to spend a lot of time on the ground searching for other sources of food. Large cats stalk or ambush the unwary. Each generation is tested by this harsh new environment, and in each generation the better adapted produce more offspring. There are two kinds of survivor. One, clinging to the remnants of forest, manages to...

Interpreting The Function Of Fossils

A storm How well could pterosaurs fly Why did sabertoothed cats have such massive fangs The most fascinating questions concern those fossil organisms that are most different from living plants and animals. This is because it is easy to work out that a fossil bat probably flew and behaved like a modern bat. But what about a pterosaur so different, and yet similar in certain ways

Mitochondrial Eve And Ychromosome Adam

Molecular phylogenetics also show that H. pylori is a distant relative of a similar ulcer-causing species of bacteria in lions, tigers, and cheetahs. The genomes of these microbes show that some of the genes in the human form are still functioning while their counterparts in the feline form (Helicobacter acinonychis) are not. Since it is unlikely (i.e., not parsimonious) that these genes would have been lost and then restored in the human form, it is probable that the human form, rather than the big cat form, is more like the ancestral microbe. Therefore, it is quite possible that the bacteria was transmitted from humans to big cats and, based on molecular clock estimates of the two species' sequences, the transmission occurred 200 Kya. Big cats could have contracted the microbe after eating a human and then spread it to other cats the way humans spread it to one another through

Fish And Tadpole Past Hiccups

If there is any consolation for getting hiccups, it is that our misery is shared with many other mammals. Cats can be stimulated to hiccup by sending an electrical impulse to a small patch of tissue in their brain stem. This area of the brain stem is thought to be the center that controls the complicated reflex that we call a hiccup.

The Weeds of Humanity

The vast human enterprise has created a new recovery fauna, and will continue to provide opportunities for new types of species that possess weedy qualities and have the ability to exploit the new anthropogenic world. Chief among these will be those species best preadapted for dealing with humanity flies, rats, raccoons, house cats, coyotes, fleas, ticks, crows, pigeons, starlings, English sparrows, and intestinal parasites, among others. These and our domesticated vassals will dominate the recovery fauna. Among plants, the equivalents will be the weeds. According to many seers, this group of new flora and fauna will be with us for an extended period of time a time span measured in the millions of years. And if humanity continues to exist and thrive (as I believe it will), this recovery biota may dominate any new age of organisms on Earth.

The Later Miocene and Early Pliocene Hominids

Soon they came across a small ravine slicing through the plain. There were no trees into which they could climb and spend the night, so this would have to do. They could hide from the bands of roaming hyenas and the large predatory big cats. It would also be a relatively comfortable place, away from the winds that were now starting to pick up in strength. Early tomorrow they would be safe back in the forest, but tonight they would all have to risk sleeping in the small ravine. The group started to settle for the night. The mothers and

Give Us the Bear Facts

Where do bears fit into the Man the Hunted scenario The clear-cut relationship between fossil cats and fossil hominids does not exist for the bear family, but present-day situations lead us to a supposition that ancient bears were unlikely to pass up a hominid meal when it presented itself. Large and clever predators, bears deserve a discussion. The bear family evolved about 30 to 40 million years ago.46 The bears are more closely related to dogs than to cats, so why are we talking about them along with lions and tigers We decided to discuss cats and bears together because they usually live solitary adult lives hunting by ambush or opportunism. Wild dogs and hyenas, alternatively, normally hunt in packs and run down (in other words, exhaust) their prey.

Steps To Understanding

Figure 1.5 The sabertooth Smilodon as seen in Walking with Beasts (2001). The animals were reconstructed from excellent skeletons preserved at Rancho La Brea in Los Angeles, and the hair and behavior were based on studies of the fossils and comparisons with modern large cats. (Courtesy of Tim Haines, image BBC 2001.) Figure 1.5 The sabertooth Smilodon as seen in Walking with Beasts (2001). The animals were reconstructed from excellent skeletons preserved at Rancho La Brea in Los Angeles, and the hair and behavior were based on studies of the fossils and comparisons with modern large cats. (Courtesy of Tim Haines, image BBC 2001.)

Specializations Of Corticotectal Organization

As noted in an earlier section, the superior colliculus influences activity of cerebral cortex by means of its projections to several thalamic nuclei that innervate the cortex. The cortex, in turn, sends projections back to the col-liculus. In most mammals that have been studied, the densest projections to the colliculus arise from visual cortex and other sensory areas of the posterior cerebrum projections from frontal cortex are present, but are relatively scant (e.g., opossums Martinich et al., 2000 insectivores Kunzle, 1995 cats Tortelly et al., 1980 Harting et al., 1992 rabbits Buchanan et al., 1994 rats Beckstead, 1979 Leichnetz and Gonzalo-Ruiz, 1987 Reep et al., 1987 tree shrews Casseday et al., 1979). In primates, by contrast, dense corticotectal projections originate from frontal cortex and from higher-order parietal and temporal areas (Figure 8), as well as from visual areas (Fries, 1984). In Old World and New World monkeys, frontotectal projections arise mainly from...

Is There an Alternative to Common Descent

Is there an alternative to common descent Can there be partial common descent The dynamic-creation model, with its created types and mini-trees, breaks the living world into arbitrary fragments, whereas common descent unifies all life. In fact, common descent unifies all disciplines of biology. The creation model does not explain the similarities between the basic types (dogs and cats), and that is a serious deficiency, because Darwin already had an elegant explanation for the similarities between taxonomic groups. Behe's irreducible complexity and Dembski's complex specified information likewise are inadequate to explain the similarities we see between, for example, cats and dogs. Dembski has not even made up his mind about the truth of common descent. Without an explanation of the similarities, these proponents open a real gap in their theories of life. So far nobody has produced a full alternative explanation for all the observations that common descent neatly explains.

Before the Age of Ulcers

What would it feel like if all these tremendously powerful wild cats lords of all they surveyed were out there stalking us with their teeth and claws How did our ancestors deal with so many predators casting around for their next meal One of us (DH) experienced an hour or two that might have supplied the tiniest fraction of those ancient hominid feelings.

Variation exists among individuals within species

Anyone who looks at their friends and relatives, or their pets, can see variation. Breeders of animals and plants use these diverse characteristics to establish new varieties of dogs, cats, pigeons, wheat, cotton, corn, and other domesticated organisms. Scientists who name and classify plants and animals are acutely aware of variation in natural populations. For example, the level of resistance to insecticides varies among individuals within species of insects. This variation enables some individuals to survive application of insecticides and produce offspring

Conservation Implications

As already noted, Malagasy lemurs may be especially susceptible to pathogens introduced through recent human occupation. Of importance are several pathogens that could play an important role in lemur disease ecology when associated with increased human presence. The first, Toxoplasmosis gondii, is a protozoanl infection that is carried by domestic cats. When the parasite enters an aberrant host, it often causes significant illness and death. T. gondii was first documented in captive L. catta in 1962 and is believed to have been brought to Madagascar by domesticated cats (Sureau et al., 1962). Of these domesticated cats, many are now feral (locally known as Ampaha), and some reside in lemur habitats. T.gondii infection is highly pathogenic in some lemur species (e.g., it is usually fatal for captive ring-tailed lemurs, Dubey et al., 1985), but may be less so for other lemur species (e.g., ruffed lemurs, Junge, 1999). Seropositive titers have been detected for both wild black lemurs...

Transitional Animal

If we survive these perilous times, it is clear that even an identification with all of mankind is not the ultimate desirable identification. If we have a profound respect for other human beings as co-equal recipients of this precious patrimony of 4.5 billion years of evolution, why should the identification not apply also to all the other organisms on Earth, which are equally the product of 4.5 billion years of evolution We care for a small fraction of the organisms on Earth - dogs, cats, and cows, for example - because they are useful or because they flatter us. But spiders and salamanders, salmon and sunflowers are equally our brothers and sisters.

The Tree Of Life

Figure 5.1 is the tree of life, which shows the relationship between the various life forms on Earth. As we go down the tree we are reaching further back in time. This is a highly simplified version, but one that is perfectly adequate for our purposes. The full version, from which Figure 5.1 has been derived, has been established by comparing the biological dissimilarity (distance) between different species of organisms by comparing their RNA and DNA. For example, domestic cats are a species close to the various wild species of cat (e.g., leopards) in that they have almost the same DNA and RNA. By contrast, there is a greater difference between domestic cats and dogs, and an even greater distance between domestic cats and any species of oak tree. Distances can be measured between all organisms, unicellular and multicellular.

Deep Impact

Humans have a history of causing animal extinctions or at least being held responsible for them. For example, the disappearances of ground sloths in the West Indies and pygmy mammoths on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean are blamed on human hunters. Extinctions of small and especially large animals (megafauna) occurred in the Americas between 12 and 10 Kya, in Madagascar between 6 and 1 Kya, and in Australia between 40 and 30 Kya and it is still debated whether they were induced by the arrival of humans to the regions or if they were spurred by climate change. In North America, the megafauna (including mammoths, mastodons, giant beavers, wild horses, camels, and saber-toothed cats) vanished from the fossil record just about the same time some of the earliest artifacts like Clovis points appear. Critics argue that the best evidence to show that overhunting by humans caused the extinctions would be an abundance of kill sites (butchered skeletons with spear points), but there are not an...

Reduced Body Hair

Comparative genomics will someday illuminate the genetic history behind our unique body hair distribution. To investigate the loss of body fur we can look for candidate genes in the genomes of hairless mice, naked mole rats, hairless cats and dogs (with furry out-groups for comparison, of course) to see if humans have anything similar.

Messages messages

First we have to distinguish between characteristics and determinants of characteristics. Gregor Mendel realised in the 1860s that what must be passed on between generations of people or cats or pea-plants cannot be actual characteristics (tallness, eyebrow shape, flower colour, or whatever) but entities that somehow cause such characteristics to develop as the organism grows from its initial seed'. These entities were to be called genes.

Universal rhodopsin

The richness and versatility of the sensory worlds does not end here. Many animals, in addition to the star-nosed mole, inhabit gloomy and crepuscular worlds, but generate elaborate and sophisticated fields of perception that arguably are as refined and sensitive as any visual or olfactory system. Most familiar in this regard, perhaps, are the extraordinary powers of echolocation possessed by the bats,220 a group that offers other insights into convergence.221 The basic principles of echolocation are fairly self-evident, and are of course employed in a somewhat similar way by many people who are blind.222 So, too, with cats.223 In the case of the fast-moving bats, however, what is particularly remarkable is that even when the animal is very close to its insect prey, where the neural responses can no longer keep track of the returning echoes, the bat still keeps a lock on its prey. Evidently the bat must employ a filtering mechanism of some sort, but how this signal is actually...

Merriams Teratorn

Teratorn Art

If this giant bird was able to pluck fish from the surface of calm, inshore waters, why have so many specimens been found in the asphalt deposits of Rancho La Brea Birds of prey were drawn to Rancho La Brea for one thing carrion. Animals of every description met a slow and grisly end in these sticky tar pits, and the larger ones, in their struggles to free themselves, must have attracted predators from far and wide. Saber tooth cats came to try their luck, as did dire wolves and a range of other large predators. Many of these also became trapped until the sticky goo was a banquet of dead and dying animals, just the sort of thing to appeal to scavengers. Merriam's teratorn and a host of other scavenging birds, including condors, eagles, and ravens, probably perched in trees near the edge of the tar pits waiting for the final, futile struggles of a large mammal. With the poor animal still alive, the scavengers descended and perched on the hulking brute, tearing at the tar-matted hide...

Sea Squirt Anatomy

Ciona Adult Sea Squirt

Vertebrates are all the animals with backbones, the fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These animals have attracted a great deal of study. The efforts of generations of vertebrate palaeontologists have been repaid by the discovery of countless spectacular fossils the heavily armoured fishes of the Siluro-Devonian, seven- and eight-toed amphibians, sail-backed mammal-like reptiles, early birds and dinosaurs with feathers, giant rhinoceroses, rodents with horns, horse-eating flightless birds, and sabre-toothed cats. These fossils tell us where the living vertebrates have come from, and they show us glimpses of different worlds that seem so bizarre that they would defy the imagination of a science fiction writer. Despite all of this information that has accumulated over the past 200 years, the origin of the group is hotly debated.

Is It Dangerous

Cours Collectife Questre Dessin

If our understanding of embryology and evolution reaches the point at which we know how to alter DNA to change the growth program, then we could make animals that would pass on their characteristics to their offspring. That will bring up another set of potential problems. It seems unlikely that chick-enosaurs would take over an environment rife with raccoons, opossums, cats, dogs, coyotes, foxes, fishes, snakes, rats, and people. Still, altering the genes of an animal, as is done with knockout mice, is not something I am suggesting.

The origin of humans

Why should the final chapter of this book be about the origin of humans The argument could be that this falls in correct chronological order we have looked at the origin of life, sex, skeletons, land life, dinosaurs, and then humans come next. That's all very well, but we could equally look at the origin of sparrows or cats or sweet potatoes. It is virtually impossible not to focus on human origins, because we are human. Therein lies a danger. Humans are not the pinnacle of evolution. Everything that has gone before was not a prelude to the appearance of human beings who arrived to a great fanfare. In the Late Triassic, a naturalist would have had no reason to suppose that dinosaurs would become large and diverse, and dominate terrestrial ecosystems for more than 160 million years, and that mammals would remain small and humble denizens of the night. Equally, when the dinosaurs were cleared from the surface of the Earth by the KT mass extinction, crocodilians, birds, or mammals all...

Figuring The Odds

You also have to factor in your own behavior. Some are just so hot, you can't get up the nerve to talk to or dance with them. But all this math is making you feel pretty confident, so we'll say you can deal with approaching three-quarters of them fn 0.75. Then we have to multiply again by the fraction who turn out to actually be interested in you. Because you are fascinating and fun to dance with, and because you can talk knowingly and winningly of probability (chicks and cats dig that), no one can refuse you, so fi 1. Assuming you have not forgotten any


Pushing us towards habitual monogamy, or at least pulling us further into it, was the sexual division of labour over food. Like no other species on the planet, we had invented a unique partnership between the sexes. By sharing plant food gathered by women, men had won the freedom to indulge the risky luxury of hunting for meat. By sharing hunted meat gathered by men, women had won access to high-protein, digestible food without having to abandon their young in seeking it. It meant that our species had a way of living on the dry plains of Africa that cut the risk of starvation when meat was scarce, plant food filled the gap when nuts and fruits were scarce, meat filled the gap. We had therefore acquired a high-protein diet without developing an intense specialisation for hunting the way the big cats did.

Tales Of Dim Eden

There is some recent evidence that the two types of sleep, dreaming and dreamless, depend on the lifestyle of the animal. Truett Allison and Domenic Ciccheti of Yale University have found that predators are statistically much more likely to dream than prey, which are in turn much more likely to experience dreamless sleep. These studies are all of mammals and apply only to differences between, not within, species. In dream sleep, the animal is powerfully immobilized and remarkably unresponsive to external stimuli. Dreamless sleep is much shallower, and we have all witnessed cats or dogs cocking their ears to a sound when apparently fast asleep. It is also commonly held that when sleeping dogs move their legs in a kind of running pattern, they are dreaming of the hunt. The fact that deep dream sleep is rare among prey today seems clearly to be a product of natural selection. But organisms that are largely prey today may have had ancestors that were predators, and vice versa. Moreover,...

What Is Intelligence

Most people, if asked to rank non-marine animals in terms of intelligence, would probably rate man as the most intelligent animal, followed perhaps by apes, down through dogs and cats, down further to the likes of mice and rats, down even further to birds, and so on. It is a comfortable picture for the human ego we are at the top of the tree of intelligence, our closest relatives are clever, our pets are quite bright, and the animals we do not In the first place, we have no reason for supposing intelligence (however defined) is the sole criterion by which we can rank animals. Why not instead use visual acuity, or speed, or strength Indeed, why try to rank animals in this way at all We should not view evolution as a ladder, with ourselves at the top and all other animals below us because they are not yet evolved enough to possess intelligence. Apes, birds, cats, dogs, mice and men are all equally evolved, since we share a common ancestor that lived hundreds of millions of years ago....


Cladogram For Seal

The characters next to the arrows are the shared characters that define the branching points. This cladogram shows that lions and domestic cats share a common ancestor and are therefore sister groups. Fig. 2.3 A simplified cladogram. The characters next to the arrows are the shared characters that define the branching points. This cladogram shows that lions and domestic cats share a common ancestor and are therefore sister groups.

An alarm system

In addition, chemical language is a way for ants to mark their territory. Some, such as African weaver ants, use their own fecal matter, like cats and dogs. Unlike other ants, which 'defecate either in a remote corner of the nest or in a special garbage area outside the nest, a pile of detritus entomologists call the kitchen midden', the weaver ants defecate over the whole surface of their territory. When Holldobler and Wilson gave a weaver ant colony access to an area that its workers had not visited before, 'the rate of defecation soared. At frequent intervals, far beyond what could have been their physiological need, the workers touched the tips of their abdomens (the extreme posterior ends of their body) to the surface and extruded large drops of brown fluid through their anuses'. When two colonies were confronted with

Killing Tactics

These predators usually wait in hiding to ambush their prey and then use their forelimbs to seize prey after a very short chase. They kill their prey with a combination of grappling claws on the forelimb, bites, and bruising kicks from the hind limbs. Prey may be suffocated by a bite that covers the nose or that holds the prey's mouth shut, or the predator may clamp down on the throat and crush the trachea (windpipe). Among extant carnivores, large cats such as tigers and cheetahs are grapple-and-slash predators.

Lower Vertebrate

Simon Conway-Morris (2003, 2005) has documented many cases of evolutionary convergence in evolution - both marsupial and placental mammals converged on saber-toothed carnivores (thylacosmilids and placental cats). The ability to fly evolved in insects, pterosaurs (reptiles), birds and bats (mammals). Conway-Morris and other authors have cited N independent examples of the origin of the eye, where N is some largish but indeterminate number.

Why The Wait

Did life need to be multicellular My perspective is warped, since I'm writing this book with fingers for typing, eyes for reading, and a rudimentary brain for musing. I like being multicellular, and I'm quite fond of people, cats, redwoods, sea turtles, and prickly pear cacti. From where I sit, it's all the freaky multicellulars that make the beauty of the world.

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