List of Illustrations

1.1. The Robin Hood Cave horse engraving 4

1.2. The Mother Grundy's Parlour 'engravings' 7

1.3. The Pin Hole Cave anthropomorph 9

1.4. The Grimes Graves deer 10

2.1. Plan of Creswell Crags gorge showing major caves and fissures 15

2.2. Plan of Church Hole showing location of the engraved panels 16

2.3. Church Hole Panel III, the 'stag' 18

2.4. Church Hole Panel III, bovid, line drawing 20

2.5. Church Hole Panel IV, line drawing of engraving/low relief of bird 22

2.6. Church Hole Panel IV, engraving/low relief of bird 22

2.7. Church Hole Panel IV, head of bovid (Bison?) 24

2.8. Church Hole Panel IV, head of bovid (line drawing) 24

2.9. Church Hole Panel VII, the 'birds' 27 2.10. Church Hole Panel VII, the 'birds', line drawing 27

3.1. Sketches showing sample locations for the 'notches' and 'birds/females' in Church Hole and for the 'vulva' in

Robin Hood Cave 38

3.2. U-series results for flowstones overlying engravings in

Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave 41

3.3. U-series results for flowstones overlying engravings in Church Hole and Robin Hood Cave and calibrated radiocarbon dates of humanly modified bones from Creswell 43

4.1. The 'Birds' panel located within the passageway in

Church Hole 48

4.2. The 'Birds' panel shaded with an accessibility shading algorithm 50

4.3. Simulated damage to the 'Birds' panel at Church Hole 51 6.1. The Southern Magnesian Limestone outcrop, with the principal vales and gorges indicated 62

6.2. Langwith Cave, a small cave set into the side of a shallow limestone vale 62

7.1. Plan of Church Hole 72

7.2. Longitudinal profiles of Church Hole showing principal sediments 75

7.3. Church Hole: diagrammatic representation of the stratigraphy with information on the contexts of archaeological and palaeontological material 76

7.4. Church Hole: small block of brecciated sediment with bones, the source of OxA-4108 77

7.5. Church Hole: atypical Levallois flake; discoidal core 84

7.6. Church Hole: chopping tool; hammerstone 85

7.7. Church Hole: Neolithic core; naturally pointed flake;

flake with notch 86

7.8. Church Hole: small block of brecciated sediment with broken flint blade and bones of mountain hare

(Lepus timidus) 89

7.9. Church Hole: composite tool; burins 93

7.10. Church Hole: piercer; bec 94

7.11. Church Hole: abruptly modified pieces 95

7.12. Church Hole bone artefacts: flesher; needle; awls 98

7.13. Church Hole antler artefacts: rods with scooped ends (foreshafts) 100

7.14. Church Hole in the context of contemporary find-spots and geography 105

8.1. Late Magdalenian sagaies 120

8.2. The form of the Gonnersdorf females after Hock 1993 123

8.3. Church Hole Panel X 124

8.4. Church Hole Panel VII as viewed today 124

8.5. Church Hole Panel VII upside down 127

8.6. The author showing two possible means of engraving

Panel VII in the Magdalenian: (1) lying down; (2) stooping 128

8.7. Stylized female engraved onto the bottom of a stone lamp from Courbet (Courtesy J. Cook) 132

8.8. Gonnersdorf Plaquette 2, with detail of engraving 2b after Bosinski and Fischer 1974 133

8.9. Church Hole Panel VII Image 5 in suggested 'correct' orientation, alongside Andernach mammoth ivory statuette An2 to show similarity. Photo: PBP 133

9.1. Plan and sections of Gouy, with location of the graphic registers 144

9.2. Plan of Gouy, with distribution of the engravings in the lower register 148

9.3. Gouy: aurochs head (probable) 150

9.4. Engravings (4-5): vulvae and bird 151

9.5. Two possible vulvae (4), surrounded by the drawing of the pubis in a 'badge'; or 'shield' shape 151

9.6. Vulva (55): Gouy is one of the very few Palaeolithic sites and caves to have an exceptional bas-relief vulva on its walls 152

9.7. Vulva (51), with an oval cupule, clearly gouged into the lower point of a simple equilateral triangle 152

9.8. Vulva (53), with a firmly gouged cupule at the lower point of a triangle sloping to the right 152

9.9. Small horse, followed by other animals that are less clearly identifiable 153

9.10. Deterioration of the rock support and successive phases of decoration 154

9.11. The animal stampede (9-10-11): a dynamic composition that is extremely well thought out 155

9.12. Detail of the engraving (9): two heads (one above the other) 156

9.13. Horse head (clearly identifiable) 156

9.14. Aurochs head (11) using a natural relief 157

9.15. Schematic sign (16) linked to the female outlines depicted in profile (among the most rudimentary known) of la Roche-Lalinde, and some of those from Fontales, Gonnersdorf, and Hohlenstein 158

9.16. Sign (16) from the lower register and (8g) from the upper register 158

9.17. Horse (22), with wavy lines, intentionally refined 160

9.18. An engraving from La Griega, Spain, as well as several horse heads from Escoural, Portugal, can be compared to the horse of Gouy 160

9.19. Tracings of the walls of the third chamber

(the best preserved) 161-162

9.20. Aurochs head with a single horn 162

9.21. Aurochs, whose head was purposely not drawn 163

9.22. Seventeen oblique and parallel lines are crossed by an elaborate form 163

9.23. Unusual association of a sign of Lalinde/Gonnersdorf type with three triangular signs 166

9.24. Aurochs head (24g), barely visible, drawn very precisely with a refined, extremely fine line, whereas the animal's horns are mingled with an abundance of lines 167

9.25. Comparison which brings out some elements of several 'decorative' conceptions and phases 168

9.26. Unpublished engravings among the eighteen triangular signs in Gouy 170

9.27. Series of triangular signs engraved on horse incisors 171

9.28. Comparison of female sexual depictions and the triangular signs of Gouy with those from other sites 173

9.29. Comparative analyses 178

9.30. Red line'straddling'the two registers of the right wall 181

9.31. Unusual associations of signs 182

9.32. Painted sign (52g), left wall (first chamber) 183

10.1. The main Sicilian and Sardinian sites mentioned in the text, some without any artistic evidence 195

10.2. Grotta dei Cervi at Levanzo: cross-section 197

10.3. Grotta dei Cervi at Levanzo: engraved aurochsen and hydruntine horse 197

10.4. Grotta dei Cervi at Levanzo: block with an engraved schematic bovid 198

10.5. Grotta dell'Addaura: map with the location of the engraved panel, and the trench which was excavated nearby 199

10.6. Grotta dell'Addaura: the engraved wall, with an anthropomorph with raised arms (A) and the 'Acrobats' (B) 199

10.7. Macomer: the theriogynous figurine with a

Prolagus sardus head 202

11.1. Engraved horses of Roucadour cave: Panels I, III and IV 209

11.2. Engraved horses of Roucadour cave: Panel IV 210

11.3. Roucadour cave: detail of horse's head 210

11.4. Engraved horses of Roucadour cave: Panels IV, V and VIII 216

11.5. Engraved horses of Roucadour cave: Panels VIII and X 217

11.6. Engraved horses of Roucadour cave: Panel XII 218

11.7. Black horse (copulating?) in the cave of Come Negre 1 220

11.8. Engraved horses of Sainte-Eulalie cave 221

11.9. Engraved horses of Pergouset cave 222

11.10. Engraved horses on bone, reindeer antler, and stone from Magdalenian VI layer in Sainte-Eulalie cave 224

11.11. Pestillac cave and Lagrave rockshelter horses 225

11.12. Abri Murat (Rocamadour, Lot) horses 226

11.13. Roucadour cave, panel IV, Horse 1, polychrome and engraved 227

12.1. The site of Le Roc-aux-Sorciers at Angles-sur-l'Anglin (Vienne)

12.2. Suzanne de Saint-Mathurin and Dorothy Garrod at Le Roc-aux-Sorciers

12.3. Topographic plan of the Roc-aux-Sorciers made by F. Rouzaud and Y. Le Guillou in 1993

12.4. The sculpted frieze of the abri Bourdois still in place

12.5. Abri Bourdois: panels of the horses and the recumbent bison

12.6. Example of a plan recording the blocks fallen from the ceiling of the Cave Taillebourg during the excavation by S. de Saint-Mathurin

12.7. Large rubble encountered during the excavation of the Taillebourg Cave

12.8. Block F45 of the Taillebourg Cave

12.9. Detail of the head of the bison sculpted on the ceiling of the Taillebourg Cave still in situ

12.10. Bison in situ on the ceiling of the Taillebourg Cave: 3D simulation

12.11. Reassemblage of the 3D impressions of blocks 5P6 and 13P8 discovered in the Cave Taillebourg 245

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