Chameleon Care Guide
Ring-tailed lemurs can handle both ripe and unripe fruit, young and mature leaves, leaf stems, flowers, and unripe seeds, and they regularly ingest dead wood, termite soil, and earth (Rasamimanana and Rafidinarivo , 1993 Sauther, 1992, 1998 Simmen et al., 2003, 2006b Sussman, 1972). As in other primate species, geophagy in ring-tailed lemurs is likely a strategy to handle and neutralize toxic secondary compounds such as tannins (Krishnamani and Mahaney, 2000 Simmen et al., 2006a,b). L. catta do take some animal prey, consuming larvae, locusts, cicadas, spiders, spiderwebs (Sauther, 1992), and occasionally even birds and chameleons (Oda, 1996 Sauther, 1992).
As noted by Herrel et al. (1995), jaw muscle activity patterns in Agama are very similar to those described previously for chameleons (Wainwright and Bennett, 1992), whereas there are significant differences with jaw motor patterns reported for Sphenodon (Gorniak et al., 1982). However, given the paucity of comparative data on motor patterns during initial prey capture in lizards it is difficult to generalize on the causal bases for these differences.
Wainwright, and A. F. Bennett. 1992. Kinematics of prey processing in Chamaeleo jacksonii conservation of function with morphological specialization. Journal of Zoology, London, 226 47-64. Wainwright, P. C. and A. F. Bennett. 1992. The mechanism of tongue projection in chameleons. I. Electromyographic tests of functional hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Biology, 168 1-21. Wainwright, P. C., D. M. Kraklau, and A. F. Bennett. 1991. Kinematics of tongue projection in Chamaeleo oustaleti. Journal of Experimental Biology, 159 109-133.
Take some animals of a camouflaged species, perhaps a species of insect, and assign them randomly to different cages (or enclosures, or ponds, whatever is suitable) which have differently coloured, or differently patterned, backgrounds. For example, you might give half the enclosures a green foresty background and the other half a reddish-brown, deserty background. Having put your animals in their green or brown enclosures, you'd then leave them to live and breed for as many generations as you have time for, after which you'd come back to see whether they had evolved to resemble their backgrounds, green or brown respectively. Of course, you only expect this result if you put predators in the enclosure too. So, let's put, say, a chameleon in. In all the enclosures No, of course not. This is an experiment, remember so you'd put a predator in half the green enclosures and half the red enclosures. The experiment would be to test the prediction that, in enclosures with a predator, the...
Even let us suppose that our extraterrestrial has the inevitable camera-eyes, but these are mounted in little turrets and able to swivel independently. Again we can find a striking convergence here on Earth. Such an arrangement is well known in the chameleon lizards. It entails some remarkable changes to the basic camera-eye. Among the most striking of these is the suppression of the lens and its replacement for refractive purposes by the cornea, which is duly equipped with muscles to effect the changes in shape necessary for focusing. How odd, but this rearrangement is strongly convergent on the eyes of the sand-lances, a group of fish.91 And despite the different media, air as against water, there is a common adaptive explanation. Both chameleons and sand-lances are capable of exceedingly accurate and rapid strikes at their respective prey in effect the lunging of the entire fish is equivalent to the darting of the chameleon tongue.92
Schematic diagram of gape and hyoid kinematic profiles during prey transport in (A) Chamaeleo jacksonii, and (B) Ctenosaura similis. Note that the hyoid is protracted during the SO phase and retracted during FO. Modified from So etal. (1992) panel B after Smith (1984). Delheusy and Bels (1992) have conducted quantitative statistical analyses of transport behavior and compared kinematic transport patterns to jaw movements during chewing, initial capture, and cleaning. An analysis of variance showed chewing and transport cycles to differ significantly in duration and time to maximal lower jaw depression, and So et ah (1992) also found numerous significant differences between transport and chewing cycles in chameleons. A principal component analysis of these behaviors in Oplurus shows that cleaning behavior is the most distinctive and that there is considerable overlap between initial capture, transport, and reduction behaviors. These behaviors, although statistically distinct,...
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